Configuring Hybrid Access Control Lists

Configuring huge access control lists has often been one of the more burdensome administrative tasks for network staff. Nowadays there are som many more devices, computers, servers and even ports which need individual access rights assigned. This useful video shows how the NCS 500 confronts this issue and it’s explained in great detail by a Cisco professional.

Transcript reproduced Below:

Today let’s talk about security on the NCS 5500 and more precisely, let’s talk about what we call hybrid access lists My name is Nicolas Fevrier and I’m a technical leader in Cisco SPBU In a recent article on, we represented how traditional or flat security access lists were implemented on the NCS 5500 routers. We invite you to check this article if you’re curious to understand how a flat ACL works, where it can be used, where we store the data, what is the scale and many configuration options You can find the link in the description of this video. Today, we will demonstrate the flexibility and the really impressive scalability you can get with another kind of access lists: the hybrid ones. It’s a feature sometimes named Scale ACL or Compressed ACL It’s the same thing. First thing to note, we need a specific hardware architecture to operate it.

That’s why it’s supported on routers and Line Cards based on external TCAM only. They are easily identified by a “-SC” at the end of the product name. Hybrid ACL requires eTCAM and it’s true whether the product is based on Jericho or Jericho+ ASICs. Second thing to note: hybrid ACLs can only be applied in ingress direction and can only be used for ipv4 and ipv6. We will start introducing the concept of object groups For instance network object group and port object groups.

As the name implies, it’s a simple construct made of prefixes or hosts on the one hand and list of ports on the other hand. For example this network object group for my email server contains 17 entries host routes but also networks like /23 /24 /25 but these port object groups contain the ports I want to open for my email servers and they are 8 entries in it. In a traditional, or flat, access list I will need to create one line for each host and prefix and for each one of them I would need to specify the port I want to open. In my case, that will be 17 x 8 that’s 136 lines. With hybrid ACL that can be reduced to just one line With this single line, I’m describing traffic coming from everywhere a every port and targeted to the matrix composed by every combination of the elements of my net-group and port-group With the expanded keyword in this show command, I can verify that indeed it’s 136 entries.

Of course my ACL filter-in can contain 100s of permit and deny lines and they can be based or not on net-group and port-group. Now let’s imagine that I have a new email server in my network. I simply need to edit my object group and add this .157 host address Automatically all the relevant ports are added to it. And the total of entries moves to 144. You understand easily now the flexibility this approach brings in your access list management but I also mentioned scalability and indeed with hybrid ACLs we can create huge filters, thing that wouldn’t be even remotely possible with a flat access list. On one line of ACL entry we can use objects for source and destination, addresses and ports so it’s potentially a 4D matrix. Let’s take a very big example to illustrate that I will use a source of net-group of 500 entries with a port-group of 500 entries also and a destination net-group of 50 entries with port-group of 10 entries.

That single line represents 125 million lines of a flat access list. What does it represent in terms of memory occupation? A part of the ACL will be placed in the eTCAM for instance the destination ports and the rest, the source and destination prefixes and the source ports will be stored in the external TCAM. You can see the numbers in this show command. Something also very important to mention the performance in term of PPS is not impacted by the application of this access list. I invite you to read the blog post for more technical details like the compression or the carving of the eTCAM and actually much more. I hope this was useful don’t hesitate to ask questions or provide your comments we are looking for your feedback. Thanks a lot for watching, see you soon. .

Additional Information:

Changing Online IP Addresses –

Useful Link on Switch IPs – How to Get an Irish IP Address

Firewall Training – Configuring TAP Devices and Ports

The latest generation of Firewalls and routers support TAP mode out of the box. It’s a huge benefit to installing dedicated hardware or taking up valuable ports on expensive switches. This video shows you how to extend the visibility of your network and enable TAP mode on your firewall without risks.

Deploying the next generation firewall in TAP mode is the easiest way to establish full network visibility, while not taking any operational risks. In a moment I will explain to you the concept and some use cases. If this is your first time here, I’m Lars from Consigas. We call ourselves the Palo Alto Networks Experts, because the next generation firewall is our passion. It’s what we do all day, every day: migrating firewalls, providing managed services, and most important implementing security best practices. When I started to work with this box, in 2010 nearly anyone knew about Palo Alto Networks But as an engineer I felt that this solution will change the world of cyber security, and yes, today We know it did big time, because it’s one of the few security solutions that can truly secure your network. However, there’s a caveat. You need to set it up in the right way in order to be effective, because while it’s awesome it’s not a magic box! So over the years we became Professional Services Partners for Palo Alto Networks, as well as one of the few Elite Authorized Training Centers (eATC), after working in the field for so many years, & being a trainer I would like to share my experience with you! So over the next couple of weeks and months we’ll release new videos and core concepts, Explaining the fundamental workings of the NG Firewall, starting with the Threat Landscape, deployment methods, NAT, App-ID, SSL encryption, VPNs and many more! So follow us on LinkedIn, YouTube or Twitter to stay up to date.

But now let’s get started with TAP interfaces. The principle idea behind the tap interface is to passively monitor the traffic with the next generation firewall. So let’s say we have the following use case: we have an internal network connected to a switch. then connects out to the internet over an existing firewall, and let’s say you would like to monitor this traffic which traverses here going out to the Internet. The way how we can do this is that we, first of all, connect the firewall to the switch and on the switch we configure a Port Mirror. This what this Port mirror will do is send only a copy of all of the traffic (coming in and going out) via this interface to the firewall. This traffic arrives on the firewall and here, like usual, we have to define an interface type So we define it as an interface type TAP and as usual also here we have to allocate a zone. Let’s call this now for instance the INTERNET-TAP zone. The interesting thing from a processing point of view of this traffic is that the packet arrives here and the firewall can now fully analyze the traffic, meaning it identifies the application, It can identify threats.

So we can fully analyze the traffic, and if you look at it from a processing point of view, this packet will also go through the normal processing path like any other packet that arrives in a layer 3 or Virtual Wire deployment. The only big difference is that for the TAP mode the source and destination zone will always be assumed the same, so if you look at the traffic logs you will see that the source and destination zone will always be INTERNET-TAP in this case, but beside this the traffic process is the same, and obviously before the traffic is sent back to the firewall, the packet is obviously dropped, but beside this the full processing takes place. Obviously we still have some limitations here, for instance SSL decryption we cannot do. And that’s the important thing, we cannot interfere with the traffic at all and that’s the full purpose behind the tap mode, so comparing this with the virtual Wire, where we’re handling traffic at Layer 2, so we’re also transparent, but the traffic is traversing the firewall, means the FW can block traffic, so it can block bad applications, it can block malware.

Well in TAP mode it is completely passive, It only receives a copy of the traffic and with this there’s no way that it can interfere with the traffic. So use cases would be: what if we do a proof of concepts? or in critical environments just want to let’s say we can analyze some traffic without any risk to the traffic and to the infrastructure itself. If you then want to add another interface for instance if you want to monitor traffic from the proxy as well, then we have two ways: Either we define another port mirror to send it to another tap interface, we can have multiple interfaces here as well, OR very simply you can just add this to the existing port mirror, meaning on a Port Mirror you can have multiple source interfaces, where you basically say all the traffic from this interface and from this interface, just send it out of this interface, and then it would reach the firewall as well.

Additional Related Resources:
Buying a Proxy Server, a simple Guide –

Rotating Proxies, Essential Information –

Do We Need Encryption for S3?

There are lots of people who hesitate about using cloud based services like S3 and with very good reason. For one it’s important to remember the old saying about the cloud – it’s simply someone else’s computer. The cloud is not some super secure remote service, it’s just a bunch of hard disks controlled and services by someone else. It’s in many ways no difference from accessing any other web based service. So if you worry about what information and details you’re putting on the Craigslist servers, you should also worry about the cloud too!

By default, HTTPS traffic on port 443 and HTTP and HTTPS proxy on port 8080 is inspected. The important benefits from online shopping are convenience of 24/7 shopping from home avoiding traffic and crowds. Routers are special because they have two IP addresses. If the printer does not have an Ethernet connection, then you have to go with the switch plus print server solution. What you have to do then, is to connect the wireless router’s Ethernet port to the switch and then plug your printer to the print server and the print server to the switch. The basics of a wireless computer controlled security camera system and a CCTV system are almost similar. A Linksys wireless router forms the backbone of a local area network that lets users work with wireless laptop computers, media players, and smartphones form anywhere within the router’s effective range. You are also to perform modem reconfiguration or alter the setup of the local area network. Some of the issues that are encountered are related to the setup along with installation of the routers.

Installation requires no previous knowledge, and they’ve got a friendly support team. Computer technical support experts always be best guides to a person to have the top impact. In order to get to that granular of a level, it would be necessary for Google to ask the ISP that issued the IP Address for the identity of the person that was using that IP Address. 1 to 232 – 1. It is necessary that the slave’s server-id must be different from the master’s server-id. 5. Leave the MAC address as default. With the IP address in hand, hearth up Minecraft, click on Multiplayer from the primary menu and add the brand new server or use the direct connect characteristic. You can add a new host site with the New button. Add – Import a new server certificate. For applications to access the services offered by the core TCP/IP protocols in a standard way, network operating systems like Windows Server 2003 make industry-standard application programming interfaces (APIs) available.

Most systems administrators configure machines as the software was developed before version control – that is manually making changes on servers. I do my best to keep my startup sequence as lean as possible, and use several utilities to make sure that various software isn’t sneaking stuff into my startup. Most of the time, we think that network is one of the major problems, but it isn’t. One of the reasons is because YAML takes into account the indentation or the lines so be extra cautious with that space bar. 7. On the protocol and ports options leave everything at its defaults and click next. To filter the Available list by categories or custom-defined sites, click the specified button in the toolbar of the viewer. The rules use the categories defined in the Application Database, network objects and custom objects (if defined). You can use the router to change your IP and you can make the connection secure by built in encryption capabilities of the router. When you develop a webpage, chances are that you are going to want to use some pictures along with those words.

Now you want to buy some virtual dollars. However, if you are into e-commerce and you want to make sure that your clients are protected and their transactions are secured, it will do well if you shift to dedicated server even if it’s more expensive. Adoption of SD-WAN is a self-fulifing prophecy, the increased adoption will only tilt the scale more and more in your favour as an enterprise. IP CCTV is now being installed into new commercial properties to offer businesses high quality security from the starting point of their business, which will ensure that they are ready to deal with security in the best possible way. Just using superman will NOT be sufficient and will cause the login process to fail. You should get a SpeedwayR login. Also does it provide you with video on demand (VOD), you just need to browse the catalog of videos and get it done.

Using a VPN is always an Option

With a VPN server’s IP address attached to your encrypted information, you can browse the internet safely and securely. Your IE should now be configured to browse the net through a proxy server. Changing your IP address and using a Web proxy can help protect your identity, which can come in handy if you’re worried that someone might be snooping on you. On the off chance that you are searching for a dependable security insurance arrangement that additionally gives secure web associations, at that point a VPN is an unquestionable requirement have application for every one of your PCs and cell phones. Of course these savings are usually passed down to the consumer of these web hosting services, which in the end benefits everybody involved with these shared IP. The TCP part ensures that data is completely sent and received at the other end. This is how you will organize your data.

It doesn’t guarantee security of course, but it does add an important layer which is extremely useful. For a start the encryption protects all the data in transit, which means that those important sales videos you have created don’t get intercepted while you’re emailing them to your marketing manager over an insecure link. They may not be safe if she leaves her laptop somewhere but at least it won’t be your fault!

However, be aware that this will only fool the most simple of IP detectors, as your real IP address will still be displayed in other areas of the HTTP header that is sent to the target webpage. What are the components of an IP address? For larger servers, 100mbit speeds are ideal. At the bottom of the PuTTYgen window are three parameters choices including SSH-1 (RSA), SSH-2 RSA, and SSH-2 DSA. This will open the Address list dialog window as seen below. Ability to frequently change IP address increases privacy. Each configuration change is logged and referenced by a ‘configuration path’ with a time stamp, the username of the administrator and an action. Always take time to test the system in full after making the changes. This means that low powered server such as a Pentium 4 2 GHz, 512 DDR RAM, 80 GB HDD can handle several thousand traders at the same time. IP location of the proxy, so that it looks as if the proxy server is the client.

No Comments Networks, News, VPN

Hiding and Obscuring Your IP Addresses

Why do people need to change their IP address? Well in truth there’s a myriad of reasons and in reality quite a few methods to achieve this. There are quite simple options you can take just to regain a little privacy, whereas the truly paranoid can use a whole host of complex technical solutions. It’s probably best to explain the basics first though, here’s some options.

Now, you need to export your current IP settings to a text file. 2. Under Computer name, domain, and workgroup settings, click Change settings. Using a computer at your local public library will hide your home IP address, as will taking your laptop to a free Internet cafe. With regard to, the wireless router is usually Belkin; if that’s the situation, you would really need to push the button just for Seven seconds, and then all of the settings will be set back to default. The printer’s default setting is to get the TCP/IP settings from DHCP. So instead of loading for example the default modern version of a dll or registry key you create whats called a “shim” and this shim will redirect the program to the old version of the dll or registry key. BTW, when you transfer, you will get a new IP deal with. Just replace the original antenna with a bigger antenna and you should get a stronger signal that can travel much further than before.

All-subnets-directed broadcast. Formed by setting all the original classful network ID host bits to 1 for a classless address prefix. The primary aim of a VPN network is always to guard your internet browsing and data history from miscreants. Websites have the disadvantage of being a living document which is listed on the on demand media of the internet. Most of us would definitely go for the individual house when compared to the apartments as it gives more freedom, independence and better living environment. This is more common among corporate VPNs Static IPs don’t change but are shared. Additionally, stringent system globally are expected to gas the profits of the web filtering market. 3. Operating system compatibility information is displayed. This directive names icons which are displayed next to files with MIME types in server generated directory listings. When we configure content switching we specify which requests are to be directed to which virtual server. Someone however can download a proxy server and it can make it harder for someone to trace their IP. And if anyone thinks to check the logged IP address against a geolocation database, all they’ll see is the location of the proxy server, which might be on the other side of the world to your own device.

This isn’t always appropriate of course, privacy is one thing but routing your connection all across the planet will lead to something for certain – latency and lag.   This won’t work in many situations, for example some people hide their addresses for using on ecommerce sites, where speed is essential.  In many ways this can be mitigated, you can certainly improve speed and network latency by investing in private proxies like these ones, although they obviously cost more.

All you need is an overachiever to assign a used address to his device and connect it to the same network. It’s an excellent effort to help customers be on Next- Gen network at the same time monetise present investments. Normally, a Ethernet network interface will pass a frame to the above network layers only if it is addressed to that interface. Now I will create another Bucket called mkcl-cloud-pricing. Some RTUs, called “smart PLCs” or remote access PLCs, provide remote programmable functionality while retaining the communications capability of an RTU. The specialists take complete care of your issue while explaining to you the core reason of the occurrence of errors while providing the right support for fixing them. Many business are additionally discovering the alternative of leasing IPv4 addresses, while they move systems as well as services over to IPv6. These are the top five Hosting business however there are others that might match your needs.

At the bottom of this hierarchy are individual hosts (also servers) that actually store information and process requests for it. Right here you’ll find all kinds of Minecraft servers we’ve to supply at CraftList starting from Vanilla, or even bungee. I’ve read this entire thread hoping for some knowledge to what I’m trying to do but couldn’t find any. The Window bit in the header determines the number of segments that can be sent at a time. This medium not only reduces the amount of video that can be stored but also increases the difficulty of accessing a particular footage. IP Forwarding can be turned on temporarily or permanently. Jim Green is a telecommunications broker, assisting his clients in both finding the best T1 service provider as well as recommending local providers of all the most popular VOIP and TDM small business phone systems. Next, a VPN-based solution to auto change IP: ibVPN, an excellent VPN service that may be used to rotate IP addresses. Start with a free trial from the ibVPN site and install the All-In-One VPN client for Windows (the MacOS app does not include the rotating server’s option, at least not now). It should now run.

Notes: All 1800 Series use a QED RM52xx Processor All 1800 Series excluding the 1841 have an 8 Port 10/100 Managed Switch. For all intents and purposes of this workbook, you’ll be using GNS3 to learn the in’s and outs of basic Cisco router and switch configuration. Configuration Phase – completed. Small Businesses – operating a business involves a whole range of complex challenges. IPv4 address space, a globally limited resource. In the following example, the second serial interface (serial 1) is given the address of Ethernet interface 0. The serial interface is unnumbered. WHY WOULD YOU WANT TO CHANGE TO AN IP ADDRESS IN THE NETHERLANDS? Demote the DC. For details, see Demoting a Samba AD DC. Most home networks use dynamic allocation. Your Cable or DSL modem most likely has an Ethernet cable already running from it to your PC. It specifies that a registered jack (RJ) connector with a 4 5 wiring sequence on an unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cabling should be used with Ethernet.

Further Word on Firewalls

many of the restrictions people face online which are linked to their IP addresses are often implemented on the simple firewall. Indeed if you’re sitting behind a corporate network, your IP address is actually quite difficult to find. If you do something you shouldn’t be doing, then expect someone to come straight through to your workstation very quickly.

HTTP-ONLY in interface inside The name “HTTP-ONLY” is the Access Control List itself, which in our example contains only one permit rule statement. If you need to restrict access over the VPN, you can do that later through your security Rule Base. “data are qualified as personal data as soon as a link can be established with the identity of the data subject (in this case, the user of the IP address) by the controller or any person using reasonable means. The company said in its filing that revenues from its viewing data business are not yet significant. 2. Are you using Pre-Shared secrets or Certificates? Asterisk gui by typing that ip address into a web browser, I recommend using Mozilla firefox (version 2) as version 3 is currently unsupported. A 169 address is your router or modem alerting you to a problem by giving you a bad IP address. Modem connection to the Internet Service Provider. 14. Leave all of the options on the next screen checked this will be sure to block the IP no matter the connection they are trying to use. By activating the private surfing options on many of the most popular web browsers, you can surf in the way you’re used to, but with your IP information protected by a proxy server.

While most will tell you that a static IP address is best, you can still benefit from having a shared IP address. To understand the importance of DHCP, imagine having to manage 5000 hosts in a network and assigning them IP address manually! If you’re unsure how your home network is configured or need to change it, see the previous article How to Configure Windows 8.1 Networks to be Public or Private. Scroll down until you see the interface you’re looking for. Check to see if you’re set to something other than “Obtain DNS servers automatically”. Since our servers are on the internet rather than on your home network, that traffic is sent from your PC to your router (the gateway), and your router forwards the request on to our server. Similarly, NHRP will tear down the SVC when the traffic for that destination drops to 0 kbps over a running average of 30 seconds. Here our region is Asia Pacific (which is my nearest location); remember to select the appropriate region as our machines will be created in that region.

Computers and other machines (like IoT devices) are infected with malware, turning each one into a bot (or zombie). This, of course, includes the Internet and is one of the major transfer protocols used to upload and download web pages and web content. All other applications and other protocols in the TCP/IP protocol suite rely on the basic services provided by the following protocols: IP, ARP, ICMP, IGMP, TCP, and UDP. It is not possible to find the service readily on the internet where the IP, domain idea and who is as well as the traceroute information are available upfront. The internet relies on a system of addresses that treats every computer, tablet and smartphone as a distinct device, allowing all of them to communicate with each other. An IP address is a numerical representation of a computer or server connected to the Internet. These are VPNs that provide users with strong privacy and security measures whenever they are using the internet. If necessary, a single Unique IP address can be assigned to any fully hosted domain using the DreamHost panel. Changing the DNS IP address is almost identical to the procedure above. That is what makes this the most frequently used technique for concealing one’s IP address.

Sharing,Distributing and Posting Images Efficiently

If you use WordPress and you are blogging about something which requires a personalized image for every post such as Gadget blogs or you want to use different images for every post you have for illustration purpose only like what we commonly found on the newspaper blogs, I think it’s a good idea to list the link to each post with an image attached to a particular post displayed along with the postname and if necessary with the excerpt on it.

Okay, there is a problem displaying that kind of layout on your page if you don’t have images with the same size attached to each post you have. It won’t be big problem if you have the same ratio dimension on all of your images, resizing it with your CSS code will give the intended layout – it’s acceptable, even sometimes the hardcoded-resized image will get a little bit jagged, but if you have an image which has a different ratio dimension, the story will be different.

There is only one solution to solve the issue if you’re not intended to upload images with the same ratio dimension. The solution is to generate a new image with the new size. The logic is simple, resize it and if necessary, crop it.
How we’re going to do that? Of course with the help of phpGD library. Is there any function wrapper available to make the job easier?

Yes! It’s called “Smart Image Resizer” created by Joe Lencioni.

IT’s great for grabbing pictures from video and online sources, then displaying them in your blog. One of the issues is of course the scale and the size of the images and it’s extremely important that you manage these correctly in order to maintain the speed of your site. It’s easy to get carried aways with using videos and images in your post but remember they are significantly bigger than even a large amount of text. I’ve inserted lots of images from a free trial of BBC iPlayer that I tested, even when saved as JPEGs they increased the size of every post significantly.

But you have to know that it’s not a plugin, it’s basically a .php file so you need to do the setup
manually. Based on the description at the comment section of the file, this .php file can be used to resizes images, intelligently sharpens, crops based on width:height ratios, color fills transparent GIFs and PNGs, and caches variations for optimal performance – just perfect to do the job, at least for me.

This file requires PHP 5.1.0+ and GD installed.
Download the image.php file from here.
Extract the zipped file then place it on your /wp-content/uploads/ directory or something else you would like it to be.
With the assumption that you place the image.php file on /wp-content/uploads/, create a folder called “imagecache” under /wp-content/uploads/.
Make your “imagecache” directory writable by the web server (usually chmod 775).
Put an image under your /wp-content/uploads/ directory. Pick the reasonably large one, for example 1024×768 so you can easily see the different between the original and the processed one.   It should work the same if you store it centrally or from a distributed server.  If it’s a popular image you may find investing in a few proxies to store them or perhaps a high powered FTP server.
Rename it to raw.jpg or any other name.
Open your browser then try these url combinations:

Go ahead and try with your own url combination.

The following images are the result of Joe Lencioni’s image.php file applied on an image of this blog. You can right click them to check the image properties.

Checking Connections with TCPView

It was a suggestion from a colleague who told me to try TCPView when I asked him about a tool to check SQLServer Connection instances created from a program that I was developing.
The problem was perplexing from a coding standpoint as the program was running out of memory due to excessive connections being created. All I need is to check whether my program is not forgetting to free any DB connection instances when it is terminated and this TCPView for windows give me what I need.
You can see TCPview in action in the following diagram, it’s not a complicated program to use but the information it provides is invaluable to any developer of client side software especially.

When you start TCPView it will enumerate all active TCP and UDP endpoints, resolving all IP addresses to their domain name versions. You can use a toolbar button or menu item to toggle the display of resolved names. On Windows NT, 2000 and XP systems TCPView shows the name of the process that owns each endpoint.

By default, TCPView updates every second, but you can use the View|Update Speed menu item to change the rate. Endpoints that change state from one update to the next are highlighted in yellow; those that are deleted are shown in red, and new endpoints are shown in green.
You can close established TCP/IP connections (those labeled with a state of ESTABLISHED) by selecting File|Close Connections, or by right-clicking on a connection and choosing Close Connections from the resulting context menu.

If you want to see who owns the domain registered for a remote address, select the item containing the name and choose Whois from the context menu or the File menu. You can save TCPView’s output window to a file using the Save menu item.    For any computer connected to the internet, you’ll almost certainly be surprised about some of the connections it identifies.  You’ll see your computer probably making a host of outbound connections that you don’t recognize, many of these will be completely legitimate.  However it’s often surprising to see  how much of your network resources are being utilized by programs which you may rarely use. Anything from that paint program to that free VPN trial you tested several years ago!

One of the most common examples is programs and applications which allow themselves to make outbound connections in order to keep them selves updates.  For instance, even Windows will check regularly for security patches and updates which can be installed automatically or on user demand.  The Windows update can be configured to function in the role the user prefers, although it’s default is to check, download and install automatically.   Other programs are not so configurable, and you’ll often find some long forgotten application downloading and installing huge updates in the background.

In corporate networks these updates can be managed centrally more efficiently, by downloading the update and distributing it from an update server.   These can usually be stored on proxies, which you may be familiar with from privacy protection servers like sneaker or rotating proxies like in this post –, you can do this on your home network but it does takes significant effort and some coding skills to manage updates outside the primary OS ones.

Online Opportunities of a Ticketmaster Proxy

Many people make their living online nowadays including myself. In many ways the methods and variety are just as widespread as normal jobs and employment. People run blogs, websites, buy and sell or simply provide advice or coaching. Many have moved their traditional, physical shops online, preferring the low cost. global reach of a website to the expense of bricks and mortar. You can hardly blame most of them, even if the rewards are smaller, which is rarely the case, the pressure and lifestyle is often usually enough to compensate.

However what’s becoming increasingly apparent is that with the upsurge in the digital world, people are becoming aware that they have two identities an online one and an offline one too. It’s the digital personae that we are going to talk about in this post in regards a particular area of online enterprises which are less than popular.

I’m talking about those group of people who become extremely skilled at buying up rare and hard to get items and reselling them at vast profits. Now I’m not talking about those who travel and buy and sell locally – some of this is all done from an armchair or an office without moving a bit. The particular example I’m going to reference is that of concert tickets.

Now if you’ve ever tried to buy some super popular concert tickets then you’ll know how hard it can be. Even if you sit ready to click on buy as soon as the tickets are on sale, then there’s no guarantee you’ll get any. In fact it’s an extremely frustrating experience if you play by the rules, as there are plenty who simply don’t.

Whereas most us have a single identity online, many people have tens or even hundreds of different identities and they use those to their advantage. While we’ll happily click on a single button to try and grab some tickets. Other people are running computer software designed to grab all the best tickets in milliseconds. Basically even if you have super reactions you won’t beat computer software or ticket bots sitting on super fast connections ready to pounce.

These people are often referred to as ‘ticket scalpers’ and they make huge amounts of money reselling concert tickets at inflated prices. In the UK some of these companies are huge organisations, who are even floated on the stock exchange but in reality are little more than efficient, digital ticket touts.

So how do they do this, well first of all they use software called ticket bots to ensure that the entire transaction is completed in a second or two. What’s more the software can run in multiple threads so they can make many purchases simultaneously. Which is part pf the reason why so many tickets disappear in seconds after release (and why the servers are often overloaded!)

The second part is to create these different identities for the bot to exploit. Most of the big ticket sellers like Ticketmaster try and prevent multiple purchases so to buy lots you have to pretend to be multiple customers. The simplest way to do this is by using proxies and multiple IP addresses. However you can’t just use any proxies or addresses, if you read this article about the best Ticketmaster proxies that are available you’ll see what I mean.

These can’t be ordinary, run of the mill proxies, they have to have very specific IP addresses in order to function. You certainly can’t use the sort of addresses that are shared by thousands of people to watch UK TV online (like this one), simply because they’re probably all ready been used and blocked from buying. The other increasingly important factor is that these anonymous IP addresses are classified as residential and not commercial which is actually very difficult to achieve.

There are lot of other factors that have to be considered, but in reality it doesn’t cost a fortune to set up this sort of infrastructure. Indeed many people just do it from their home in their spare time and pocket serious money by reselling tickets to the very popular concerts. Obviously, it’s on very dubious ground and the ticket sites are always trying to block these attempts but it’s very difficult to stop the smaller scale efforts. People buying a dozen or so tickets through a few credit cards and IP addresses are very difficult to stop but if you get many people doing this loads of tickets are taken off the legitimate market straight away.

DNS Basics Everyone Should Know

Today, there are individuals attempting to determine exactly how the Domain Name System-known as DNS by the amazing kids, and also by association, the Internet all at once, works. Unfortunately, many of these effective people, and others, don’t recognize just what DNS is. This video is for them as well as for any individual else that wants to learn about DNS. We are mosting likely to look at the essentials of what DNS is, exactly how it functions, as well as just how if you utilize the Internet, it affects your life daily.

The Domain Name System is doubtless one of one of the most vital and also over-looked parts of the Internet. Without DNS, the Internet as we understand it today, would certainly fall down, and also we would certainly all be licking stamps to pay our costs, driving to a real shop to purchase something, checking out the paper to see exactly what movies were revealing, or getting little round pieces of plastic called CDs to get our songs.

Exactly how can we claim that DNS is this crucial?

Most of us understand (or should know), that the computers that make up the Internet are established in large networks that communicate with each other by means of underground (or under water), cords and are recognized utilizing strings of numbers called IP addresses. Considering that the majority of us do not have the mental capacity to sort through as well as keep numerous mathematical collection, DNS is utilized to translate an actual name right into these numbers. But how does the Domain Name System function? In an internet browser let’s say you go into the URL, as a. well, as an example. When you type right into your address bar, you will in fact be looking for that domain. Of course there is a dot at the end of the domain. One that you never see. As well as one that you never kind. When you enter, you are really most likely to the web page

Anyway that end dot stands for the origin of the Internet’s name space.The Root! Why is this so crucial? Due to the fact that this is where it all starts. When you initially look for the domain name ., your browser and your os will certainly first determine if they understand what the IP address is already. It could be set up on your computer system or maybe in memory, just what the awesome youngsters call cache. No, not cash as in cash money; the memory cache, C-A-C-H-E. Keep up, will certainly ya ?! Anyway … So the web browser asks the operating system and they both have no idea where the domain name is. Just what takes place next? The operating system is set up to ask a dealing with name web server, for IP addresses is does unknown. This dealing with name web server is the workhorse of the DNS lookup. It is either set up by hand or instantly within your operating system. Your os asks (or questions), the fixing name web server for the right domain. The dealing with name server might or could not have this in memory or, you recognize, cache.

Yes the C-A-C-H-E one, not the … never mind. For this demo, it does not. The only point that dealing with name web servers need to understand, is where to locate the origin name web servers. Yes, that enigmatic dot that appears at the end of every domain name you type right into that address bar. The root name servers will respond with “I do not know, But I do know where to find the com name web servers. Attempt there.” The COM name servers are called the Top Level Domain name servers or TLD name servers. The fixing name server then takes all of this information from the origin name web servers, puts it in its cache, and afterwards goes directly to the COM TLD name servers. When the settling name web server queries the domain, the TLD name web servers react, “I don’t know, yet I do recognize where to find the name web servers. Try there.” This following set of name servers are the reliable name servers. So how did the COM TLD name servers know which reliable name web servers to utilize? With the help of the domain name’s registrar.

When a domain name is acquired, the registrar is informed which reliable name web servers that domain need to use. They notify the company responsible for the leading level domain (the windows registry), and tell them to update the TLD name web servers. So … anyway … The settling name server takes the action from the TLD name web server, stores it in cache, and afterwards quizs the name servers. At this point, the reliable name server will certainly state, “Hey! I recognize where that is! Tell your browser to head to the IP Address! The settling name server takes this details from the authoritative name web server, puts it in cache, and gives the reply to the os. The os after that provides this to the internet browser as well as the web browser after that makes a connection to the IP address requesting the website address. Pretty amazing huh? While the process seems complex-and, think me it is, this entire cycle take less time compared to it takes you to blink an eye.

DNS was developed to work extremely quick as well as efficiently. It is an essential part of the Internet. When you comprehend this, you can plainly see the many various elements and also organizations that are responsible for a solitary DNS lookup. One lookup! There is a settling name server, the root name server, the TLD name web servers, and also the authoritative name servers. If anyone were to considerably change or filter any kind of part of the DNS process, it can lead to catastrophe.

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Arranging Wireless Computers For The Greatest Signal Gain

There are some issues to consider when arranging wireless computers on a wireless home or business network.

One is the distance between wireless systems the other is potential sources of interference with the wireless radio signals


Proper antenna configuration is a critical factor in maximizing radio range. As a general guide, range increases in proportion to antenna height.

I know this might seem difficult to do but it’s not as difficult as it sounds just try and move the wireless router or antenna to a different location – higher is always better when arranging wireless computers

Wireless Distances Can Be Tricky

When arranging wireless computers, although there are usually ways to extend distance when using signal boosters and multiple wireless routers or access points.

Wi-Fi networking can work through most walls and other building structures, but the range is much better in open spaces.

The range of wireless adapters outdoors can be up to 1500 feet (457 meters)
Indoors at up to 300 feet (91 meters)
But Don’t Forget That These Ranges Are Under Ideal Circumstances Without Interference.

Quick Tip: When arranging wireless computers. The indoor range is the most sensitive and really depends on the structural elements of your home.

Which Will Have The Best Range

Range of a wireless system is based more on the frequency Then the band that it operates in vs. the standard that it uses.

Although makers of 802.11a equipment might disagree, the 5GHz frequency that 802.11a wireless equipment operates in results in a shorter range than 802.11b or g products when used in the typical residential environment.

802.11b and g-based equipment operates in the lower-frequency 2.4GHz frequency band, which suffers from less signal reduction when passing through the walls and ceilings of your home.

802.11b and 802.11g’s range advantages will tend to be neutralized if your wireless LAN is set up in an “open field” environment that has no obstructions between the Access Points and clients.

Interference With Home Wireless Devices

Large amounts of metals in the walls can be a problem for example heating-air conditioning-metal lath, especially older homes. Wireless networks broadcast on the same 2.4Ghz frequency as cordless phones and microwave ovens.

These devices are not supposed to interfere with each other, but occasionally they might, so try and keep your computers away from the deices (ex: micro wave ovens-cordless phones) this is especially true for base stations when arranging wireless computers.

Although normal desktops which function without mission critical services are relatively unaffected by the odd drop in connection.  That’s not the case if you’re running servers which provide remote access or applications.  For example always on systems such as firewalls and proxies like these rotating proxies should be shielded from any interference if possible.

The 802.11a equipment , and especially the dual band A and G products, is appealing in cases where there is potential conflicts, specifically, if you are heavily dependent on 2.4GHz cordless phones, and most of the cordless phones use this range.

Try This And Overcome The Wireless Obstruction

Keep your wireless devices away from the above appliances

Raise your access point and keep them out of the way of office workers which can cause interference

Move the PC away from any metal cabinets to a better location that’s not under your desk

Use a repeater that rebroadcast a signal from the access point, can eliminate dead spots

Introduction to IP Routing

Conceptually IP routing is pretty straight forward, especially when you look at it from the hosts point of view.  If the destination is directly connected such as a direct link or on the same Ethernet network then the IP datagram is simply forwarded to it’s destination.  If it’s not connected then the host simply send the datagram to it’s default router and lets this handle the next stage of the delivery.  This simple example illustrates most scenarios, for example if an IP packet was being routed through a proxy to allow access to the BBC iPlayer – like this situation.

The basis of IP routing is that it is done on a hop-by-hop basis. The Internet Protocol does not know the complete route to any destination except those directly connected to it.  Ip routing relies on sending the datagram to the next hop router – assuming  this host is closer to the destination until it reaches a router which is directly connected to the destination.

IP routing performs the following –

  • Searches the routing table to see if there is a matching network and host ID.  If there is the packet can be transferred through to the destination.
  • Search the routing table for an entry that matches the network ID.  It only needs one entry for an entire network and the packet can then be sent to the indicated next hop.
  • If all other searches fail then look for the entry marked – ’default’.  The packet then is sent to the next hop router associated with this entry.

If all these searches fail then the datagram is not  marked deliverable.  Even if it has a custom address perhaps an IP address for Netflix routing, it still will not matter.  In reality most searches will fail the initial two searches and be transferred to the default gateway which could be a router or even a proxy site which forwards to the internet.

If the packet cannot be delivered (usually down to some fault or configuration error) then an error message is generated and sent back to the original host.  The two key points to remember is that default routes can be specified for all packets even when the destination and network ID are not known.  The ability to specify specific routes to networks without having to specify the exact host makes the whole system work – routing tables thus contain a few thousand destinations instead of several million!!

It also involves the protocol to cope with complicated and disparate environments with ease.  It’s arguably one of the reasons why the internet has developed so quickly.  Even when we operate complicated client side tools like this Smart DNS Tool designed to access BBC iPlayer abroad, which rotates our IP addresses every few minute.  The protocol is able to reconnect and complete connections even when the client is changing and rotating it’s addresses.