Sharing,Distributing and Posting Images Efficiently

If you use WordPress and you are blogging about something which requires a personalized image for every post such as Gadget blogs or you want to use different images for every post you have for illustration purpose only like what we commonly found on the newspaper blogs, I think it’s a good idea to list the link to each post with an image attached to a particular post displayed along with the postname and if necessary with the excerpt on it.

Okay, there is a problem displaying that kind of layout on your page if you don’t have images with the same size attached to each post you have. It won’t be big problem if you have the same ratio dimension on all of your images, resizing it with your CSS code will give the intended layout – it’s acceptable, even sometimes the hardcoded-resized image will get a little bit jagged, but if you have an image which has a different ratio dimension, the story will be different.

There is only one solution to solve the issue if you’re not intended to upload images with the same ratio dimension. The solution is to generate a new image with the new size. The logic is simple, resize it and if necessary, crop it.
How we’re going to do that? Of course with the help of phpGD library. Is there any function wrapper available to make the job easier?

Yes! It’s called “Smart Image Resizer” created by Joe Lencioni.

IT’s great for grabbing pictures from video and online sources, then displaying them in your blog. One of the issues is of course the scale and the size of the images and it’s extremely important that you manage these correctly in order to maintain the speed of your site. It’s easy to get carried aways with using videos and images in your post but remember they are significantly bigger than even a large amount of text. I’ve inserted lots of images from a free trial of BBC iPlayer that I tested, even when saved as JPEGs they increased the size of every post significantly.

But you have to know that it’s not a plugin, it’s basically a .php file so you need to do the setup
manually. Based on the description at the comment section of the file, this .php file can be used to resizes images, intelligently sharpens, crops based on width:height ratios, color fills transparent GIFs and PNGs, and caches variations for optimal performance – just perfect to do the job, at least for me.

This file requires PHP 5.1.0+ and GD installed.
Download the image.php file from here.
Extract the zipped file then place it on your /wp-content/uploads/ directory or something else you would like it to be.
With the assumption that you place the image.php file on /wp-content/uploads/, create a folder called “imagecache” under /wp-content/uploads/.
Make your “imagecache” directory writable by the web server (usually chmod 775).
Put an image under your /wp-content/uploads/ directory. Pick the reasonably large one, for example 1024×768 so you can easily see the different between the original and the processed one.   It should work the same if you store it centrally or from a distributed server.  If it’s a popular image you may find investing in a few proxies to store them or perhaps a high powered FTP server.
Rename it to raw.jpg or any other name.
Open your browser then try these url combinations:

Go ahead and try with your own url combination.

The following images are the result of Joe Lencioni’s image.php file applied on an image of this blog. You can right click them to check the image properties.

Checking Connections with TCPView

It was a suggestion from a colleague who told me to try TCPView when I asked him about a tool to check SQLServer Connection instances created from a program that I was developing.
The problem was perplexing from a coding standpoint as the program was running out of memory due to excessive connections being created. All I need is to check whether my program is not forgetting to free any DB connection instances when it is terminated and this TCPView for windows give me what I need.
You can see TCPview in action in the following diagram, it’s not a complicated program to use but the information it provides is invaluable to any developer of client side software especially.

When you start TCPView it will enumerate all active TCP and UDP endpoints, resolving all IP addresses to their domain name versions. You can use a toolbar button or menu item to toggle the display of resolved names. On Windows NT, 2000 and XP systems TCPView shows the name of the process that owns each endpoint.

By default, TCPView updates every second, but you can use the View|Update Speed menu item to change the rate. Endpoints that change state from one update to the next are highlighted in yellow; those that are deleted are shown in red, and new endpoints are shown in green.
You can close established TCP/IP connections (those labeled with a state of ESTABLISHED) by selecting File|Close Connections, or by right-clicking on a connection and choosing Close Connections from the resulting context menu.

If you want to see who owns the domain registered for a remote address, select the item containing the name and choose Whois from the context menu or the File menu. You can save TCPView’s output window to a file using the Save menu item.    For any computer connected to the internet, you’ll almost certainly be surprised about some of the connections it identifies.  You’ll see your computer probably making a host of outbound connections that you don’t recognize, many of these will be completely legitimate.  However it’s often surprising to see  how much of your network resources are being utilized by programs which you may rarely use. Anything from that paint program to that free VPN trial you tested several years ago!

One of the most common examples is programs and applications which allow themselves to make outbound connections in order to keep them selves updates.  For instance, even Windows will check regularly for security patches and updates which can be installed automatically or on user demand.  The Windows update can be configured to function in the role the user prefers, although it’s default is to check, download and install automatically.   Other programs are not so configurable, and you’ll often find some long forgotten application downloading and installing huge updates in the background.

In corporate networks these updates can be managed centrally more efficiently, by downloading the update and distributing it from an update server.   These can usually be stored on proxies, which you may be familiar with from privacy protection servers like sneaker or rotating proxies like in this post –, you can do this on your home network but it does takes significant effort and some coding skills to manage updates outside the primary OS ones.

Online Opportunities of a Ticketmaster Proxy

Many people make their living online nowadays including myself. In many ways the methods and variety are just as widespread as normal jobs and employment. People run blogs, websites, buy and sell or simply provide advice or coaching. Many have moved their traditional, physical shops online, preferring the low cost. global reach of a website to the expense of bricks and mortar. You can hardly blame most of them, even if the rewards are smaller, which is rarely the case, the pressure and lifestyle is often usually enough to compensate.

However what’s becoming increasingly apparent is that with the upsurge in the digital world, people are becoming aware that they have two identities an online one and an offline one too. It’s the digital personae that we are going to talk about in this post in regards a particular area of online enterprises which are less than popular.

I’m talking about those group of people who become extremely skilled at buying up rare and hard to get items and reselling them at vast profits. Now I’m not talking about those who travel and buy and sell locally – some of this is all done from an armchair or an office without moving a bit. The particular example I’m going to reference is that of concert tickets.

Now if you’ve ever tried to buy some super popular concert tickets then you’ll know how hard it can be. Even if you sit ready to click on buy as soon as the tickets are on sale, then there’s no guarantee you’ll get any. In fact it’s an extremely frustrating experience if you play by the rules, as there are plenty who simply don’t.

Whereas most us have a single identity online, many people have tens or even hundreds of different identities and they use those to their advantage. While we’ll happily click on a single button to try and grab some tickets. Other people are running computer software designed to grab all the best tickets in milliseconds. Basically even if you have super reactions you won’t beat computer software or ticket bots sitting on super fast connections ready to pounce.

These people are often referred to as ‘ticket scalpers’ and they make huge amounts of money reselling concert tickets at inflated prices. In the UK some of these companies are huge organisations, who are even floated on the stock exchange but in reality are little more than efficient, digital ticket touts.

So how do they do this, well first of all they use software called ticket bots to ensure that the entire transaction is completed in a second or two. What’s more the software can run in multiple threads so they can make many purchases simultaneously. Which is part pf the reason why so many tickets disappear in seconds after release (and why the servers are often overloaded!)

The second part is to create these different identities for the bot to exploit. Most of the big ticket sellers like Ticketmaster try and prevent multiple purchases so to buy lots you have to pretend to be multiple customers. The simplest way to do this is by using proxies and multiple IP addresses. However you can’t just use any proxies or addresses, if you read this article about the best Ticketmaster proxies that are available you’ll see what I mean.

These can’t be ordinary, run of the mill proxies, they have to have very specific IP addresses in order to function. You certainly can’t use the sort of addresses that are shared by thousands of people to watch UK TV online (like this one), simply because they’re probably all ready been used and blocked from buying. The other increasingly important factor is that these anonymous IP addresses are classified as residential and not commercial which is actually very difficult to achieve.

There are lot of other factors that have to be considered, but in reality it doesn’t cost a fortune to set up this sort of infrastructure. Indeed many people just do it from their home in their spare time and pocket serious money by reselling tickets to the very popular concerts. Obviously, it’s on very dubious ground and the ticket sites are always trying to block these attempts but it’s very difficult to stop the smaller scale efforts. People buying a dozen or so tickets through a few credit cards and IP addresses are very difficult to stop but if you get many people doing this loads of tickets are taken off the legitimate market straight away.

DNS Basics Everyone Should Know

Today, there are individuals attempting to determine exactly how the Domain Name System-known as DNS by the amazing kids, and also by association, the Internet all at once, works. Unfortunately, many of these effective people, and others, don’t recognize just what DNS is. This video is for them as well as for any individual else that wants to learn about DNS. We are mosting likely to look at the essentials of what DNS is, exactly how it functions, as well as just how if you utilize the Internet, it affects your life daily.

The Domain Name System is doubtless one of one of the most vital and also over-looked parts of the Internet. Without DNS, the Internet as we understand it today, would certainly fall down, and also we would certainly all be licking stamps to pay our costs, driving to a real shop to purchase something, checking out the paper to see exactly what movies were revealing, or getting little round pieces of plastic called CDs to get our songs.

Exactly how can we claim that DNS is this crucial?

Most of us understand (or should know), that the computers that make up the Internet are established in large networks that communicate with each other by means of underground (or under water), cords and are recognized utilizing strings of numbers called IP addresses. Considering that the majority of us do not have the mental capacity to sort through as well as keep numerous mathematical collection, DNS is utilized to translate an actual name right into these numbers. But how does the Domain Name System function? In an internet browser let’s say you go into the URL, as a. well, as an example. When you type right into your address bar, you will in fact be looking for that domain. Of course there is a dot at the end of the domain. One that you never see. As well as one that you never kind. When you enter, you are really most likely to the web page

Anyway that end dot stands for the origin of the Internet’s name space.The Root! Why is this so crucial? Due to the fact that this is where it all starts. When you initially look for the domain name ., your browser and your os will certainly first determine if they understand what the IP address is already. It could be set up on your computer system or maybe in memory, just what the awesome youngsters call cache. No, not cash as in cash money; the memory cache, C-A-C-H-E. Keep up, will certainly ya ?! Anyway … So the web browser asks the operating system and they both have no idea where the domain name is. Just what takes place next? The operating system is set up to ask a dealing with name web server, for IP addresses is does unknown. This dealing with name web server is the workhorse of the DNS lookup. It is either set up by hand or instantly within your operating system. Your os asks (or questions), the fixing name web server for the right domain. The dealing with name server might or could not have this in memory or, you recognize, cache.

Yes the C-A-C-H-E one, not the … never mind. For this demo, it does not. The only point that dealing with name web servers need to understand, is where to locate the origin name web servers. Yes, that enigmatic dot that appears at the end of every domain name you type right into that address bar. The root name servers will respond with “I do not know, But I do know where to find the com name web servers. Attempt there.” The COM name servers are called the Top Level Domain name servers or TLD name servers. The fixing name server then takes all of this information from the origin name web servers, puts it in its cache, and afterwards goes directly to the COM TLD name servers. When the settling name web server queries the domain, the TLD name web servers react, “I don’t know, yet I do recognize where to find the name web servers. Try there.” This following set of name servers are the reliable name servers. So how did the COM TLD name servers know which reliable name web servers to utilize? With the help of the domain name’s registrar.

When a domain name is acquired, the registrar is informed which reliable name web servers that domain need to use. They notify the company responsible for the leading level domain (the windows registry), and tell them to update the TLD name web servers. So … anyway … The settling name server takes the action from the TLD name web server, stores it in cache, and afterwards quizs the name servers. At this point, the reliable name server will certainly state, “Hey! I recognize where that is! Tell your browser to head to the IP Address! The settling name server takes this details from the authoritative name web server, puts it in cache, and gives the reply to the os. The os after that provides this to the internet browser as well as the web browser after that makes a connection to the IP address requesting the website address. Pretty amazing huh? While the process seems complex-and, think me it is, this entire cycle take less time compared to it takes you to blink an eye.

DNS was developed to work extremely quick as well as efficiently. It is an essential part of the Internet. When you comprehend this, you can plainly see the many various elements and also organizations that are responsible for a solitary DNS lookup. One lookup! There is a settling name server, the root name server, the TLD name web servers, and also the authoritative name servers. If anyone were to considerably change or filter any kind of part of the DNS process, it can lead to catastrophe.

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Arranging Wireless Computers For The Greatest Signal Gain

There are some issues to consider when arranging wireless computers on a wireless home or business network.

One is the distance between wireless systems the other is potential sources of interference with the wireless radio signals


Proper antenna configuration is a critical factor in maximizing radio range. As a general guide, range increases in proportion to antenna height.

I know this might seem difficult to do but it’s not as difficult as it sounds just try and move the wireless router or antenna to a different location – higher is always better when arranging wireless computers

Wireless Distances Can Be Tricky

When arranging wireless computers, although there are usually ways to extend distance when using signal boosters and multiple wireless routers or access points.

Wi-Fi networking can work through most walls and other building structures, but the range is much better in open spaces.

The range of wireless adapters outdoors can be up to 1500 feet (457 meters)
Indoors at up to 300 feet (91 meters)
But Don’t Forget That These Ranges Are Under Ideal Circumstances Without Interference.

Quick Tip: When arranging wireless computers. The indoor range is the most sensitive and really depends on the structural elements of your home.

Which Will Have The Best Range

Range of a wireless system is based more on the frequency Then the band that it operates in vs. the standard that it uses.

Although makers of 802.11a equipment might disagree, the 5GHz frequency that 802.11a wireless equipment operates in results in a shorter range than 802.11b or g products when used in the typical residential environment.

802.11b and g-based equipment operates in the lower-frequency 2.4GHz frequency band, which suffers from less signal reduction when passing through the walls and ceilings of your home.

802.11b and 802.11g’s range advantages will tend to be neutralized if your wireless LAN is set up in an “open field” environment that has no obstructions between the Access Points and clients.

Interference With Home Wireless Devices

Large amounts of metals in the walls can be a problem for example heating-air conditioning-metal lath, especially older homes. Wireless networks broadcast on the same 2.4Ghz frequency as cordless phones and microwave ovens.

These devices are not supposed to interfere with each other, but occasionally they might, so try and keep your computers away from the deices (ex: micro wave ovens-cordless phones) this is especially true for base stations when arranging wireless computers.

Although normal desktops which function without mission critical services are relatively unaffected by the odd drop in connection.  That’s not the case if you’re running servers which provide remote access or applications.  For example always on systems such as firewalls and proxies like these rotating proxies should be shielded from any interference if possible.

The 802.11a equipment , and especially the dual band A and G products, is appealing in cases where there is potential conflicts, specifically, if you are heavily dependent on 2.4GHz cordless phones, and most of the cordless phones use this range.

Try This And Overcome The Wireless Obstruction

Keep your wireless devices away from the above appliances

Raise your access point and keep them out of the way of office workers which can cause interference

Move the PC away from any metal cabinets to a better location that’s not under your desk

Use a repeater that rebroadcast a signal from the access point, can eliminate dead spots

Introduction to IP Routing

Conceptually IP routing is pretty straight forward, especially when you look at it from the hosts point of view.  If the destination is directly connected such as a direct link or on the same Ethernet network then the IP datagram is simply forwarded to it’s destination.  If it’s not connected then the host simply send the datagram to it’s default router and lets this handle the next stage of the delivery.  This simple example illustrates most scenarios, for example if an IP packet was being routed through a proxy to allow access to the BBC iPlayer – like this situation.

The basis of IP routing is that it is done on a hop-by-hop basis. The Internet Protocol does not know the complete route to any destination except those directly connected to it.  Ip routing relies on sending the datagram to the next hop router – assuming  this host is closer to the destination until it reaches a router which is directly connected to the destination.

IP routing performs the following –

  • Searches the routing table to see if there is a matching network and host ID.  If there is the packet can be transferred through to the destination.
  • Search the routing table for an entry that matches the network ID.  It only needs one entry for an entire network and the packet can then be sent to the indicated next hop.
  • If all other searches fail then look for the entry marked – ’default’.  The packet then is sent to the next hop router associated with this entry.

If all these searches fail then the datagram is not  marked deliverable.  Even if it has a custom address perhaps an IP address for Netflix routing, it still will not matter.  In reality most searches will fail the initial two searches and be transferred to the default gateway which could be a router or even a proxy site which forwards to the internet.

If the packet cannot be delivered (usually down to some fault or configuration error) then an error message is generated and sent back to the original host.  The two key points to remember is that default routes can be specified for all packets even when the destination and network ID are not known.  The ability to specify specific routes to networks without having to specify the exact host makes the whole system work – routing tables thus contain a few thousand destinations instead of several million!!

It also involves the protocol to cope with complicated and disparate environments with ease.  It’s arguably one of the reasons why the internet has developed so quickly.  Even when we operate complicated client side tools like this Smart DNS Tool designed to access BBC iPlayer abroad, which rotates our IP addresses every few minute.  The protocol is able to reconnect and complete connections even when the client is changing and rotating it’s addresses.


HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)

For many of us a network is either our little home setup consisting of perhaps a modem and wireless access point and a few connected devices, or perhaps that huge global wide network – the internet.  Whatever the size all networks need to allow communication between the various devices connected to them.  Just like human beings need languages to communicate so do networks only in this context we call them ‘protocols’.

The internet is built primarily using TCP/IP protocols to communicate, this is used to transport information between ‘web clients’ and ‘web servers’.   It’s not enough though to enable the media rich content delivered to our web browsers and a host of secondary protocols site above the main transport protocol – the most important one which enables the world wide web is called HTTP.

This provides a method for web browsers to access content stored on web servers, which is created using HTML (Hypertext Markup Language).  HTML documents contain text, graphics and video but also hyperlinks to other locations on the world wide web.   HTTP is responsible for processing these links and enabling the client/server communication which results.

Without HTTP the world wide web simply wouldn’t exist and if you want to see it’s origins search for RFC 1945 where you’ll find HTTP defined as an application level protocol designed with the lightness and speed necessary for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems.   It is a stateless, generic and object orientated protocol which can be used for a huge variety of tasks – crucially it can be used on a variety of platforms which means it doesn’t matter whether you’re platform your computer is on (linux, Windows or Mac for instance) – you can still access the web content via HTTP.

The content is largely irrelevant as well although obviously your computer may need plugins or codecs in order to handle things like specific video formats.  The fact is that the protocol doesn’t limit you in any way.  I can just as easily watch something like the BBC iPlayer on a high end Unix server as I can on a cheap desktop PC.  Indeed in many environments this has become to be a problem where traffic into corporate networks is rising rapidly because so many formats can be supported under HTTP.

It’s incredible to see something like a video being streamed across the internet, across many different forms of hardware all encapsulated in a single web page powered by HTTP.   When many people worried that tehir access to the BBC iPlayer stopped working last year, it was thought it could be some sort of compatibility problems.  In truth it was simply the BBC VPN not working that most ex-pats used to bypass the geo-blocking introduced earlier in the decade.

So what happens? When someone types a web name or address into the address field of their web browser, the browser attempts to locate the address on the network it is connected to.  This can either be a local address or more commonly it will look out on to the internet looking for the designated web server.   HTTP is the command and control protocol which enables communication between the client and the web server allowing commands to be passed between the two of them.   HTML is the formatting language of the web pages which are transferred when you access a web site.

The HTTP connection between the client and server can be secured in two specific ways – using secure HTTP (SHTTP) or Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) which both allow the information transmitted to be encrypted and thus protected.  It should be noted though that the vast majority of communication is standard HTTP and is transmitted in clear text insecurely which is why so many people use proxies and VPNs like this to protect their connections.

Choosing the Right Proxies for Instagram

In the technology world, all proxies are not created equally.  Indeed there is a huge variation of the servers and their respective IP addresses which can often be confusing.  It’s almost 30 years now since the first proxies were created in the CERN labs and in the intervening time, they have changed into all sorts of different formats.  The very first proxies were actually just simple gateways and in many environments they remain just like this.  However the global network that is the internet means that proxies now have to deal with a whole lot more protocols and communication metrics.

The use of proxies has also developed greatly too, especially as they have slowly migrated from the server room out into internet.  However not only is the actual server configuration important so is the IP address ranges that are assigned to it.  Now obviously the operating system does have some impact, after all an outdated copy of IIS installed on a version of Windows NT is going to have a serious amount of vulnerabilities built into it.   Yet for many purposes this is not as important as the actual IP addresses that are assigned to the server.

Take for example people who want to use proxies to run multiple accounts on social media platforms like Instagram.   This is a very popular social site which focuses on the upload and sharing of online photos.  Over the passed few years it has developed from a simple photo album site to one of the rivals to sites like Facebook.  As it has millions of users, then there are lots of people who now make money from running various accounts.  The issue is that Instagram only want people to run single accounts and takes many steps to block multiple or concurrent access.

To bypass these blocks there’s only one real solution – hiding your real IP address when accessing multiple accounts.  Most of the entrepreneurs use proxies in order to achieve this.  The key to achieving this is to minimize the footprint so that each account is being accessed by a completely different person.   Now just picking up a free proxy address from the internet is obviously possible however it’s an extremely bad idea for a variety of reasons.  However the main one is that often these are already being used to access Instagram and therefore you risk your account being flagged too.  This is one of the reasons that people using the site for business purposes will almost always use private proxies for Instagram whenever they can.

These private servers have two crucial components – firstly they are not used by anyone else, so you know that some spammer isn’t trying to use them for fake likes or account management.  The secondly is that the very best ones have residential IP addresses assigned to them.  This is also important as currently most proxies have commercial IP address ranges assigned as they generally reside in datacentres.  However Instagram and many other sites know that their genuine home customers will never have these sorts of IP addresses at all.

So they are often flagged as suspicious and commonly blocked from accessing the social media site.  It’s a growing practice as last year Netflix blocked all access from commercial IP address ranges which instantly stopped people using commercial VPNs to access the site.  So if you want to buy proxies for Instagram you should ensure that they have residential IP addresses and definitely are’t already blocked by the site.   Sure these Instagram proxies are  likely to cost a bit more but they will ensure that your Instagram accounts are safe and will not be risked.  Obviously these are only needed if you’re trying to run multiple accounts or some Instagram promotion software.  Otherwise just continue to use your own IP address to access the site.


How to Network your Home Using HPNA

Using Home Phone Line Connections ( HPNA ) to Connect Your Computers – commonly referred to as HPNA in the networking world-

This is a guide to setting up a computer network using the existing telephone wiring that is running through your home’s walls.
You can connect your computers to a network using your phone jacks and existing wiring –
Basically saying that instead of running CAT-5 cable to Ethernet cards on your computers you can use a special HPNA network card and regular telephone cabling into the phone jack.

Not all your pc’s need to be connected using this technology,in fact this is usually reserved for “remote” computers that are in a room that is too far or too inconvenient to run an Ethernet cable or reach with a Wireless signal.
Similar to using an Ethernet network each computer that connects to the network using a telephone cable and phone jack and will need it’s own Network card installed – this will be a most likely be a PCI card and must be HPNA capable.

If you have purchased a HPNA network card (can also be a USB device) and need help with how to install it you can use the instructions for installing an Ethernet Network Card (it’s basically the same technique)
Click here for instructions

It’s very rare for a computer to already have a HPNA network card in it, so if you see a place where you can plug in a telephone size cable it is most likely a dial-up modem and will not be capable of connecting your computer to the network.    Also keep in mind that simply installing a HPNA card and plugging a telephone cable into the phone jack and possible doing the same with another computer in another room is not necessarily going to create a computer network.

You are still going to need some kind of “central” device like a Router that “talks” to each computer and decides which traffic goes to which pc.  You’ll need one of these devices too if you want to route or prioritize traffic from your network onto the internet.  You can also use it to set up VPNs or even connect to residential proxies for hiding your IP address when you’re online.

The benefits to doing a network using HPNA are going to be the convenience of being able to plug your computer into the telephone jack in the wall and having it connect to your network and to able to SHARE THE SAME INTERNET CONNECTION as your other pc’s and SHARE FILES between the computers.
All this without running your own CAT-5 cabling or purchasing wireless equipment.

DO keep in mind though there are some draw backs to using this type of networking technology.

First off you must understand that the quality of the communication between your computers using HPNA will be entirely dependant on the quality of the phone wiring of your home.
Also remember telephone wiring was not originally intended for this type of data transfer. So if your house is old or you have doubts about the quality of either the wiring or the phone jacks themselves, then you must keep that in mind if and when you are troubleshooting any issues that may arise during and after the install.
And as a side note
* Sometimes the phone company doesn’t have your house wired correctly in order to allow this type of communication* – you may want to contact them or your ISP for more information.

What You’ll need –

  • Telephone cabling- the minimal amount necessary to reach from your computer to the phone jack- you want this cable as short as possible
  • HPNA enabled Network Interface Card/Adapter- One for each computer that connects through the phone wiring
  • Router/Switch- one to be the central connector of all the computers and must be HPNA capable

* It’s best to have atleast Windows Vista or newer version of windows on your computer * No need to worry about requirements for CPU speed or RAM or Harddrive space

The easiest way to create a computer network is to connect all your pc’s to a central switch or router, which they will all use to communicate to one another. Look at the diagram below to see an example of what the finished network will look like.
So lets get started-
First thing is to decide if your are going to use a Router or a Switch You could use a Hub in this same type of set up, but with today’s prices you’re much better sticking with either a Switch or a Router. But which one, both a switch and router are going to be the “decision maker” on the network, which means it will decide what data goes to what pc. Having said that a Router is much smarter and does a much better job of this and make the number of decisions you have to make much simpler. And a switch will not be able to send out a HPNA signal for the pc’s to detect. If you use a Switch there will be some addition settings you will have to configure on your computers so they all have addresses on the network.

Also if you are planning on sharing one internet connection then you are going to need to use a Router so that it can dish out IP Addresses to each of the computers.  SO it’s probably best to just go with the Router right off the bat, because it will be more useful down the road as your network expands and becomes more complex.  For example if  you need some online privacy and want to try out a rotating proxies trial then it’s much, much easier if you have a decent router to route your traffic through.

Not all routers do Home Phoneline Networking: FOR HPNA YOUR ROUTER MUST BE CAPABLE OF TRANSMITTING A HPNA signal down your telephone wiring


Now lets take a look at your Computers-
Each computer on the network needs to have some type of network card installed, and if your computer is fairly new theres a good chance it already has a ethernet card or a dial-up modem installed.
You can be sure by either simply looking at the back of your pc for a port that looks like a phone jack- if it is the same size as a telephone cable ending then it is either a dial-up modem or a HPNA card.
Test this by trying to insert your telephone cable into it. – if it’s too small for the port then it is a ethernet card that is installed.
The other way to tell what type of hardware is installed on your pc is to check in your Device Manager
Click here for instructions

Alright so now we’re ready to plug some things in-
If you have a DSL internet connection then it may be nessary for you to also use a Filter or Splitter to seperate the different signals traveling through the phone wiring.
If this is true and your ISP has provided your hardware, I would strongly recommend contacting them for more specific directions on how to correctly use the filter Basically, it is the filters job to keep the two signal ( telephone and internet ) from interfering with one one another.

Connect one end of your telephone cable to the HPNA adapter you’ve purchased and the other end to the filter or directly into the phone jack.

Now assuming you have the HPNA adapter installed correctly and the computer has gotten the drivers installed properly then now the pc should be able to detect the HPNA signal being transmitted out by the router.

And then verify that each of your computers is able to ” Pull an IP Address” from the router and that they all start with the same numbers. The router should give each pc it’s own unique address and they will all start with the same numbers.
All IP addresses will be in the form of 4 octets – format – Some examples of an IP address are: 192.168.x.x or 172.16.x.x or 10.x.x.x
The X’s are numbers that can change from one network to another so not to worry as long as the beginings are the same.
Think of the IP address as a street address – All your pc’s need to live on the same street in the same town.
There will also be a Subnet Mask- don’t worry about this number to much either your router will do this stuff for you.

To be sure all your computers are set-up to automatically get an IP address from your Router.  You should be then in a position to look further afield if your router is linked up to the internet. Remember you need a default gateway set to the router and you’ll need some form of name resolution.  You can point your clients at the router for name resolution or specify them on the client.  For example I use a BBC DNS server which is specially designed to allow me to watch the BBC from outside the UK. I specify this individually as I don;t want all my other devices configured like this.

Causes of Network Latency – TCP Proxies

On any sort of internet connection, speed is of course important.  The fastest response will be direct connections when the two computers are physically connected.  Of course the internet enables connections over thousands of miles but obviously this involves many more hops in the route.   If you start to use proxy servers or VPNs then you add an additional hop in the route which will almost always slow down your connection even more.

Overall speed is obviously one issue, but depending on what you’re doing online then there’s another that may be even more important.  Latency can actually cause a real problem with all sorts of online applications and especially for people playing games online.  If there is a long delay on the connection playing any sort of online action game can be virtually impossible online. If  you don’t believe me try playing Call of Duty using a satellite internet connection!   If you combine these with a slow VPN or even rotating residential proxies then you can seriously impact performance of your link.

TCP Hybla is an experimental TCP enhancement developed with the principal objective of combating the performance decline triggered by the prolonged RTTs typical of satellite links. It consists of a set of procedures that includes, among others:

  • an enhancement of the standard congestion control algorithm (to grant long RTT connections the exact same instantaneous segment transmission rate of a comparatively fast reference connection).
  • the compulsory adoption of the SACK policy.
  • the use of timestamps.
  • the adoption of Hoe’s channel bandwidth estimate.
  • the application and compulsory use of packet spacing methods (also known as “pacing”).
  • TCP Hybla includes only sender-side modification of TCP. As that, it is totally compatible with standard receivers.

For a full description of goals and characteristics of TCP Hybla refer to the publications section.

TCP Hybla offers a pretty impressive efficiency improvement to long RTT satellite hookups with respect to TCP NewReno. It may be adopted either as an end-to-end protocol, or as satellite segment transport protocol in PEP (Performance Enhancing Proxy) designs based upon the TCP splitting principle. It can be also used as transport protocol in DTN architectures. See the performance section for further information.

Linux implementation.
Starting from kernel 2.6.13 Hybla has been included in the official Linux kernel. This implementation, based on the “module” Linux technology, does not include the last two Hybla components: Hoe’s channel bandwidth estimate and packet spacing. Their enhancement is mandatory to totally benefit from Hybla performance improvement. To this end, it is enough to patch the official kernel with the MultiTCP package, downloadable from the downloads section.

NS-2 implementation.
A TCP Hybla module has been developed for the widely adopted NS-2 simulation platform. This element can be downloaded from the downloads section.  At the time of writing this has yet to be tested extensively, it should work with all platforms and even with proxies designed for Instagram for instance.

TATPA testbed.
TATPA stands for Testbed for Advanced Transport Protocols and Architecture. It is a testbed developed by Hybla’s publishers to carry out comparative efficiency assessment of new TCP variants (included Hybla) and alternative architectures, such as PEPs (Performance Enhanced Proxy) and also DTN (Delay Tolerant Networks). It could be fully managed by remote through a powerful web interface. For further information see the TATPA testbed and the publications sections.

TCP Hybla development is supported by the European Satellite Network of Excellence (SatNEx) project.