Choosing the Right Proxies for Instagram

In the technology world, all proxies are not created equally.  Indeed there is a huge variation of the servers and their respective IP addresses which can often be confusing.  It’s almost 30 years now since the first proxies were created in the CERN labs and in the intervening time, they have changed into all sorts of different formats.  The very first proxies were actually just simple gateways and in many environments they remain just like this.  However the global network that is the internet means that proxies now have to deal with a whole lot more protocols and communication metrics.

The use of proxies has also developed greatly too, especially as they have slowly migrated from the server room out into internet.  However not only is the actual server configuration important so is the IP address ranges that are assigned to it.  Now obviously the operating system does have some impact, after all an outdated copy of IIS installed on a version of Windows NT is going to have a serious amount of vulnerabilities built into it.   Yet for many purposes this is not as important as the actual IP addresses that are assigned to the server.

Take for example people who want to use proxies to run multiple accounts on social media platforms like Instagram.   This is a very popular social site which focuses on the upload and sharing of online photos.  Over the passed few years it has developed from a simple photo album site to one of the rivals to sites like Facebook.  As it has millions of users, then there are lots of people who now make money from running various accounts.  The issue is that Instagram only want people to run single accounts and takes many steps to block multiple or concurrent access.

To bypass these blocks there’s only one real solution – hiding your real IP address when accessing multiple accounts.  Most of the entrepreneurs use proxies in order to achieve this.  The key to achieving this is to minimize the footprint so that each account is being accessed by a completely different person.   Now just picking up a free proxy address from the internet is obviously possible however it’s an extremely bad idea for a variety of reasons.  However the main one is that often these are already being used to access Instagram and therefore you risk your account being flagged too.  This is one of the reasons that people using the site for business purposes will almost always use private proxies for Instagram whenever they can.

These private servers have two crucial components – firstly they are not used by anyone else, so you know that some spammer isn’t trying to use them for fake likes or account management.  The secondly is that the very best ones have residential IP addresses assigned to them.  This is also important as currently most proxies have commercial IP address ranges assigned as they generally reside in datacentres.  However Instagram and many other sites know that their genuine home customers will never have these sorts of IP addresses at all.

So they are often flagged as suspicious and commonly blocked from accessing the social media site.  It’s a growing practice as last year Netflix blocked all access from commercial IP address ranges which instantly stopped people using commercial VPNs to access the site.  So if you want to buy proxies for Instagram you should ensure that they have residential IP addresses and definitely are’t already blocked by the site.   Sure there likely to cost a bit more but they will ensure that your Instagram accounts are safe and will not be risked.  Obviously these are only needed if you’re trying to run multiple accounts or some Instagram promotion software.  Otherwise just continue to use your own IP address to access the site.

 

How to Network your Home Using HPNA

Using Home Phone Line Connections ( HPNA ) to Connect Your Computers – commonly referred to as HPNA in the networking world-

This is a guide to setting up a computer network using the existing telephone wiring that is running through your home’s walls.
You can connect your computers to a network using your phone jacks and existing wiring –
Basically saying that instead of running CAT-5 cable to Ethernet cards on your computers you can use a special HPNA network card and regular telephone cabling into the phone jack.

Not all your pc’s need to be connected using this technology,in fact this is usually reserved for “remote” computers that are in a room that is too far or too inconvenient to run an Ethernet cable or reach with a Wireless signal.
Similar to using an Ethernet network each computer that connects to the network using a telephone cable and phone jack and will need it’s own Network card installed – this will be a most likely be a PCI card and must be HPNA capable.

If you have purchased a HPNA network card (can also be a USB device) and need help with how to install it you can use the instructions for installing an Ethernet Network Card (it’s basically the same technique)
Click here for instructions

It’s very rare for a computer to already have a HPNA network card in it, so if you see a place where you can plug in a telephone size cable it is most likely a dial-up modem and will not be capable of connecting your computer to the network.    Also keep in mind that simply installing a HPNA card and plugging a telephone cable into the phone jack and possible doing the same with another computer in another room is not necessarily going to create a computer network.

You are still going to need some kind of “central” device like a Router that “talks” to each computer and decides which traffic goes to which pc.  You’ll need one of these devices too if you want to route or prioritize traffic from your network onto the internet.  You can also use it to set up VPNs or even connect to residential proxies for hiding your IP address when you’re online.

The benefits to doing a network using HPNA are going to be the convenience of being able to plug your computer into the telephone jack in the wall and having it connect to your network and to able to SHARE THE SAME INTERNET CONNECTION as your other pc’s and SHARE FILES between the computers.
All this without running your own CAT-5 cabling or purchasing wireless equipment.

DO keep in mind though there are some draw backs to using this type of networking technology.

First off you must understand that the quality of the communication between your computers using HPNA will be entirely dependant on the quality of the phone wiring of your home.
Also remember telephone wiring was not originally intended for this type of data transfer. So if your house is old or you have doubts about the quality of either the wiring or the phone jacks themselves, then you must keep that in mind if and when you are troubleshooting any issues that may arise during and after the install.
And as a side note
* Sometimes the phone company doesn’t have your house wired correctly in order to allow this type of communication* – you may want to contact them or your ISP for more information.

What You’ll need –

  • Telephone cabling- the minimal amount necessary to reach from your computer to the phone jack- you want this cable as short as possible
  • HPNA enabled Network Interface Card/Adapter- One for each computer that connects through the phone wiring
  • Router/Switch- one to be the central connector of all the computers and must be HPNA capable

* It’s best to have atleast Windows Vista or newer version of windows on your computer * No need to worry about requirements for CPU speed or RAM or Harddrive space

The easiest way to create a computer network is to connect all your pc’s to a central switch or router, which they will all use to communicate to one another. Look at the diagram below to see an example of what the finished network will look like.
So lets get started-
First thing is to decide if your are going to use a Router or a Switch You could use a Hub in this same type of set up, but with todays prices you’re much better sticking with either a Switch or a Router. But which one, both a switch and router are going to be the “decsion maker” on the network, which means it will decide what data goes to what pc. Having said that a Router is much smarter and does a much better job of this and make the number of decisions you have to make much simpler. And a switch will not be able to send out a HPNA signal for the pc’s to detect. If you use a Switch there will be some addition settings you will have to configure on your computers so they all have addresses on the network.

Also if you are planning on sharing one internet connection then you are going to need to use a Router so that it can dish out IP Addresses to each of the computers.  SO it’s probably best to just go with the Router right off the bat, because it will be more useful down the road as your network expands and becomes more complex.  For example if  you need some online privacy and want to try out a rotating proxies trial then it’s much, much easier if you have a decent router to route your traffic through.

Not all routers do Home Phoneline Networking: FOR HPNA YOUR ROUTER MUST BE CAPABLE OF TRANSMITTING A HPNA signal down your telephone wiring

USE A ROUTER – YOU’LL BE HAPPIER in the end.

Now lets take a look at your Computers-
Each computer on the network needs to have some type of network card installed, and if your computer is fairly new theres a good chance it already has a ethernet card or a dial-up modem installed.
You can be sure by either simply looking at the back of your pc for a port that looks like a phone jack- if it is the same size as a telephone cable ending then it is either a dial-up modem or a HPNA card.
Test this by trying to insert your telephone cable into it. – if it’s too small for the port then it is a ethernet card that is installed.
The other way to tell what type of hardware is installed on your pc is to check in your Device Manager
Click here for instructions

Alright so now we’re ready to plug some things in-
If you have a DSL internet connection then it may be nessary for you to also use a Filter or Splitter to seperate the different signals traveling through the phone wiring.
If this is true and your ISP has provided your hardware, I would strongly recommend contacting them for more specific directions on how to correctly use the filter Basically, it is the filters job to keep the two signal ( telephone and internet ) from interfering with one one another.

Connect one end of your telephone cable to the HPNA adapter you’ve purchased and the other end to the filter or directly into the phone jack.

Now assuming you have the HPNA adapter installed correctly and the computer has gotten the drivers installed properly then now the pc should be able to detect the HPNA signal being transmitted out by the router.

And then verify that each of your computers is able to ” Pull an IP Address” from the router and that they all start with the same numbers. The router should give each pc it’s own unique address and they will all start with the same numbers.
All IP addresses will be in the form of 4 octets – format – xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx Some examples of an IP address are: 192.168.x.x or 172.16.x.x or 10.x.x.x
The X’s are numbers that can change from one network to another so not to worry as long as the beginings are the same.
Think of the IP address as a street address – All your pc’s need to live on the same street in the same town.
There will also be a Subnet Mask- don’t worry about this number to much either your router will do this stuff for you.

To be sure all your computers are set-up to automatically get an IP address from your Router

Causes of Network Latency – TCP Proxies

On any sort of internet connection, speed is of course important.  The fastest response will be direct connections when the two computers are physically connected.  Of course the internet enables connections over thousands of miles but obviously this involves many more hops in the route.   If you start to use proxy servers or VPNs then you add an additional hop in the route which will almost always slow down your connection even more.

Overall speed is obviously one issue, but depending on what you’re doing online then there’s another that may be even more important.  Latency can actually cause a real problem with all sorts of online applications and especially for people playing games online.  If there is a long delay on the connection playing any sort of online action game can be virtually impossible online. If  you don’t believe me try playing Call of Duty using a satellite internet connection!   If you combine these with a slow VPN or even rotating residential proxies then you can seriously impact performance of your link.

TCP Hybla is an experimental TCP enhancement developed with the principal objective of combating the performance decline triggered by the prolonged RTTs typical of satellite links. It consists of a set of procedures that includes, among others:

  • an enhancement of the standard congestion control algorithm (to grant long RTT connections the exact same instantaneous segment transmission rate of a comparatively fast reference connection).
  • the compulsory adoption of the SACK policy.
  • the use of timestamps.
  • the adoption of Hoe’s channel bandwidth estimate.
  • the application and compulsory use of packet spacing methods (also known as “pacing”).
  • TCP Hybla includes only sender-side modification of TCP. As that, it is totally compatible with standard receivers.

For a full description of goals and characteristics of TCP Hybla refer to the publications section.

Performance.
TCP Hybla offers a pretty impressive efficiency improvement to long RTT satellite hookups with respect to TCP NewReno. It may be adopted either as an end-to-end protocol, or as satellite segment transport protocol in PEP (Performance Enhancing Proxy) designs based upon the TCP splitting principle. It can be also used as transport protocol in DTN architectures. See the performance section for further information.

Linux implementation.
Starting from kernel 2.6.13 Hybla has been included in the official Linux kernel. This implementation, based on the “module” Linux technology, does not include the last two Hybla components: Hoe’s channel bandwidth estimate and packet spacing. Their enhancement is mandatory to totally benefit from Hybla performance improvement. To this end, it is enough to patch the official kernel with the MultiTCP package, downloadable from the downloads section.

NS-2 implementation.
A TCP Hybla module has been developed for the widely adopted NS-2 simulation platform. This element can be downloaded from the downloads section.  At the time of writing this has yet to be tested extensively, it should work with all platforms and even with proxies designed for Instagram for instance.

TATPA testbed.
TATPA stands for Testbed for Advanced Transport Protocols and Architecture. It is a testbed developed by Hybla’s publishers to carry out comparative efficiency assessment of new TCP variants (included Hybla) and alternative architectures, such as PEPs (Performance Enhanced Proxy) and also DTN (Delay Tolerant Networks). It could be fully managed by remote through a powerful web interface. For further information see the TATPA testbed and the publications sections.

Projects.
TCP Hybla development is supported by the European Satellite Network of Excellence (SatNEx) project.

Using Proxy Servers for Privacy and Profit

Everyone online has a digital address.  It’s nothing complicated but it’s usually directly linked to your internet protocol address or IP address for short.  Although this number does vary throughout time, at the moment you connect to the internet it’s completely unique to you and you alone.  This number can be used to track your online activity to a surprising degree, it is the primary way that careless online criminals are tracked down.  There are of course huge privacy issues to having this address recorded and  technology exists to hide your location from websites you visit and your ISP.  At the heart of these are tools like VPN and proxy servers which we’ll cover briefly in this article.

Lots of us most probably have made use of a proxy server in all sorts of environments. In the case that you use the internet at the workplace or college and university, there’s a strong probability that you connect to it through a proxy server. They are actually frequently deployed to regulate access inwards and outwards to a company network from the world wide web. The idea is that as opposed to examining a wide variety of individual connections, the proxy can channel web traffic through a solitary point that makes it less complicated to monitor and check for things like viruses.

To impose making use of the proxy server, a large number of network administrators will definitely enforce their usage by a range of techniques. From the client computer the use of the proxy will be made mandatory by hard coding the settings into the browser. So for instance, Internet Explorer would certainly be set up and the settings pre-configured by using something like the Internet Explorer Application kit. The settings can also be installed by utilizing group policy settings released to the client from the Active directory.

In addition, the system administrator may even release configurations on the exterior firewall to control access throughout the network perimeter. This would be achieved by defining the IP address of the proxy and ensuring all other addresses are blocked out from leaving the network. If there are numerous proxies or they are set up in an array then multiple addresses would be configured. This would stop any individual from bypassing client side settings or setting up an additional browser and trying to gain access to the internet directly. If the address isn’t specified then the access would be blocked.

Proxies on the internet are normally used in a marginally different context although the functionality is relatively the same. They are mostly used to provide a level of privacy and hide your internet address from web servers. The idea is that rather than seeing the IP address of your client, then the web server (and your ISP) will only observe the IP address of the proxy. This would also allow you to circumvent some of the many geo-blocks which exist on the web. Essentially if you route your connection through a proxy located in the right nation then you can bypass the block. Countless people use these to view things like the BBC from Spain or anywhere outside the UK, though it can be challenging to find a UK proxy fast enough to stream video at least without paying for one. This has become a bit more complicated over the last handful of years though, as the websites have begun to detect the use of proxies and are blocking them automatically. Nowadays you normally need a VPN so as to watch video from one of the primary media sites, due to the fact that proxies won’t function any longer.

Presently there are other common uses of proxies online and that’s usually to make money. Countless individuals and companies, use proxies so as to create more electronic identities. Doing this means instead of being restricted to one connection, then you can efficiently make use of hundreds at the same time. This is most especially useful for performing online research, posting adverts, internet marketing and even utilizing e-commerce sites to buy stock to resale. A common use is to use automated software to buy things like sneakers or tickets to popular concerts, normally you’ll only be allowed to try and buy once but using proxies you can purchase many. This is why people employ computer software to speed up these methods and purchase the best rotating proxies so as to facilitate these purchases. There are many individuals making thousands from simple software programs, a few of the best rotating proxy networks and an ordinary home computer acquiring and selling limited availability items such as these.

Specialized Proxies with Residential IP Addresses

Now to 99% of the population, this principle is going to sound a little bizarre however it does illustrate the relevance of proxies today. The term sneaker proxies does not describe some incredibly, sneaky configuration of a proxy server more to the function they carry out. However before we explain what they in fact are and their function then we initially need a little background.

This subject is concerned all about the latest style, and more particularly the latest sneakers and shoes (maybe known as trainers outside the U.S.A). Now in my day, if you desired the trendiest trainers then you ‘d wait for their release and pop down to the sports shop and purchase them. Obviously life is a lot more complicated nowadays and there’s actually a selection of minimal edition tennis shoes that are quite in demand but extremely challenging to get. Exactly what takes place is the manufacturer launches a minimal amounts of these and they do so in an extremely particular way to maintain need.

  • Producer Releases Limited Edition Sneakers to Sellers
  • Middle Men typically get them.
  • These are sold online to consumers

This sounds basic however unfortunately, the demand is extremely high worldwide and the makers just release a very small number of the tennis shoes. It’s really a crazy market and it’s incredibly difficult to obtain even a single pair of these sneakers if you play the game by the book. Essentially even if you await alert then instantly go to among these sneaker sites you ‘d need to be extremely lucky to get even single pair. It’s so exceptionally hard to choose these up an entire sub industry has been developed with supporting technology to acquire them. So here’s exactly what you require and why utilizing tennis shoe proxies is an important component of this struggle.

Unfortunately if you just play the game, it’s pretty unlikely you’re going to get any of these unusual tennis shoe releases. So if you’re desperate for the latest fashion or possibly simply want to make a couple of bucks selling them on at a profit then they’re are approaches to significantly enhance your opportunities of getting lots of pairs. All of these releases are generally offered online from various sneaker professional sellers, however just wishing to click and purchase isn’t really going to work.

Exactly what do you require? How can you get a couple of or perhaps great deals on the latest sneakers? Well ideally there’s 3 components you need to basically warranty at least a couple of pairs.

A devoted server: now if you’re just after a number of pairs for your self, then this action is perhaps not necessary. If you’re in it for organisation and want to increase return it’s a sensible investment. Tennis shoe servers are merely devoted web servers preferably located to the datacentres of the business like Nike, Supreme, Footsite and Shopify who offer these sneakers. You use these to host the next phase, the Bots and automated software application described below.

Sneaker Bots— there are a great deal of these and it’s best to do your research on what’s working best at any point in time. A few of the Bots work best with specific sites, but they all work in a similar way. It’s automated software which can keep looking for defined tennis shoes without a human having to sit there for hours pushing the buy button. You can set up the software application to imitate human behaviour with infinite perseverance– obtaining these sneakers day and night when they’re released. You can run these bots on your PC or laptop with a fast connection although they’re more effective on devoted servers.
Sneaker Proxies
Now this is perhaps the most vital, and frequently mostly forgotten action if you’re heading to become a sneaker baron. Automated software application is fantastic for sitting there gradually aiming to fill shopping baskets with the latest tennis shoes however if you try it they get prohibited pretty quickly. Exactly what takes place is that the retail sites quickly spot these multiple applications since they’re all originating from the exact same IP address of either your server or your computer system. As soon as it occurs, and it will extremely rapidly, they obstruct the IP address and any request from there will be disregarded– then it’s game over for that address I’m afraid.

If you do not get the proxy stage proper then all the rest will be meaningless expenditure and effort. Exactly what makes an appropriate sneaker proxy? Well there’s certainly tons of complimentary proxies around on the internet, and totally free is certainly great. It’s pointless utilizing these and indeed very risky.   Free proxies are a combination of misconfigured servers, that is accidentally exposed which people get on and utilize. The others are hacked or taken over servers intentionally exposed so identity thieves can use them to take usernames, accounts and passwords. Considered that you will require at some point to spend for these sneakers utilizing some sort of credit or debit card using totally free proxies to send your financial information is utter insanity– do not do it.

Even if you do take place to pick a safe proxy which some dozy network administrator has actually exposed, there’s still little point. They are going to be slow which indicates however fast your computer system or sneaker server is, your applications will run at a snail’s rate. You’re not likely to be successful with a sluggish connection and often you’ll see the bot timing out. The second problem is that there is an important component to the proxy which you’ll have to succeed and essentially no free proxies will have these– a domestic IP address.
Numerous business websites now are well aware of people using proxies and VPNs to bypass geoblocks or run automated software. They discover it challenging to spot these programs however there’s a basic approach which blocks 90% of people who attempt– they ban connections from commercial IP addresses. Residential IP addresses are just allocated to home users from ISPs and so it’s very difficult to obtain great deals of them – read about them here. Virtually all proxies and VPNs available to employ are assigned with business IP addresses, these are not effective as sneaker proxies at all.

The Sneaker proxies are different, they utilize residential IP addresses which look identical to home users and will be enabled access to essentially all websites. Certainly you still have to be careful with numerous connections but the companies who supply these usually provide something called rotating backconnect configurations which switch both setups and IP addresses automatically. These are able to replicate rotating proxies but make them  more affordable than purchasing devoted property proxies which can get exceptionally pricey.

Software Testing: Static Analysis

There are several phases to a proper test analysis, the initial stage is normally the static review. This is the process of examining the static code initially to check for simple errors such as syntax problems or fundamental flaws in both design and application. It’s not normally a long exhaustive check, unless of course some obvious or major issues are identified at this stage.

Just like reviews, static analysis looks out for problems without executing the code. Nonetheless, as opposed to reviews static analysis is undertaken once the code has actually been written. Its objective is to find flaws in software source code and software models. Source code is actually any series of statements recorded some human-readable computer programming language which can then be transposed to equivalent computer executable code– this is normally produced by the developer. A software model is an image of the final approach developed using techniques such as Unified Modeling Language (UML); it is commonly generated by a software designer.  Normally this should be accessed and stored securely, with restrictions on who can alter this.  If accessed remotely it should be through a dedicated line if possible or at least using some sort of secure residential VPN (such as this).

Static analysis can find issues that are hard to find during the course of test execution by analyzing the program code e.g. instructions to the computer can be in the style of control flow graphs (how control passes between modules) and data flows (making certain data is identified and accurately used). The value of static analysis is:

Early discovery of defects just before test execution. Just like reviews, the sooner the issue is located, the cheaper and simpler it is to fix.

Early warning regarding questionable aspects of the code or development, by the calculation of metrics, such as a high-complexity measure. If code is too complicated it could be a lot more prone to error or a lot less dependent on the focus given to the code by programmers. If they recognize that the code has to be complicated then they are more probable to check and double check that this is correct; nevertheless, if it is unexpectedly complex there is a higher chance that there will certainly be a problem in it.

Identification of defects not easily found by dynamic testing, such as development standard non-compliances as well as detecting dependencies and inconsistencies in software models, such as hyperlinks or user interfaces that were actually either incorrect or unknown before static analysis was carried out.

Enhanced maintainability of code and design. By executing static analysis, defects will be removed that would certainly typically have increased the volume of maintenance needed after ‘go live’. It can also recognize complex code which if fixed will make the code more understandable as well as consequently easier to manage.

Prevention of defects. By pinpointing the defect early in the life cycle it is actually a great deal easier to identify why it was there in the first place (root cause analysis) than during test execution, therefore providing information on possible process improvement that could be made to prevent the same defect appearing again.

Source: Finding Residential Proxies, James Williams

Don’t Expect Internet Privacy by Default

When the internet was first conceived back in the 1980s, well the date varies depending on your definition – there was little thought about security. The date of course is disputed but I prefer 1983 when TCP/IP was adopted by ARPANET, however the lack of security is a matter of fact. It was a form on communication allowing disparate devices and people to talk to each other and no-one expected it to end up where it is. Unfortunately to allow cross compatibility then compromises need to be made, the security of your data is one of them.

However there are methods to add some security, web sites try with SSL implementation but the end user can assist to. Most users who have security concerns or have experienced cyber crime, will have come across VPN software. This is a virtual private network which can be created to encrypt your data as it travels across the internet. These come in all shapes and sizes from basic personal security ones, to advances residential IP rotating proxies like these ones.

With regards to lots of people there is a pervasive picture of a VPN user, it’s something similar to a young person sporting a hoodie, hunched up in a coffee shop with their laptop. They’re possibly attempting to hack into some federal government computers and are actually on the run from the authorities. As a VPN conceals your geographic location and your web traffic there’s a common idea that the individual is up to no good and certainly has something to hide.

The reality is literally a very long way from this viewpoint and even though numerous hackers do indeed use VPNs consistently so do an awful number of ordinary individuals. Most large corporations have been using VPNs for decades to support inbound connections from remote users. If a salesman needs access to the product database on the company’s network it’s much simpler to allow them to connect through the internet and view the latest version. This is much more secure than travelling around with DVDs and obviously assures that he or she has the most recent versions.

If you make any type of normal connection over the internet, all your web traffic is pretty much viewable, i.e anyone with a mind can intercept and see it. In the event that you’re logging and connecting to a secured share then this would certainly consist of usernames and security passwords. So in order to protect these connections, you might commonly install a VPN client on the laptop computer and make certain it’s used to encrypt the connection back to the company network. It is actually completely legitimate and indeed intelligent business practice.

Regular home users will make use of VPNs for very similar reasons. Essentially the internet is insecure and there is minimal provision for security integrated in automatically. Sure you can access secure sites through things like SSL when you have to enter a credit card or payment information. However this is the exception not the rule and most websites are actually not secure and the vast majority of information flies across the wires in clear text.

In addition to the general insecurity of the web, there’s the additional issue of privacy. Your surfing data is easily available via a variety of sources. For a start, there’s a complete list in your ISP of every little thing you do on the internet and depending on where you reside this can be routinely and easily accessed. Using a VPN stops this, transforming your internet activity into an encrypted list which is unreadable without your permission. Are they used by cyber criminals and terrorists? Sure but also by millions of people who think that what they do online shouldn’t be part of public records.

The VPN systems are becoming more and more sophisticated simply driven by demand and the risks of recognition. There are all sorts of variations including enabling different setups and ports to dodge detection. You can also get them to use home based IP addresses through specific residential IP providers –

In a large number of countries VPNs are definitely not illegal but simply a simple business and personal security tool. However in some countries this is not the case and you can get into trouble if caught using them. Countries that actually ban the use of VPN include places like China, Iraq, Belarus and Turkey. Various other countries merely allow authorized services which usually indicate those which can be jeopardized if required. Individuals still use VPNs in the majority of these nations indeed in Turkey almost all expats use one to view things like British and American TV on-line. It’s actually quite difficult to detect a VPN in use however that doesn’t stop it technically being illegal in those locations.

Source: http://www.onlineanonymity.org/proxies/residential-vpn-ip-address/

Understanding ARP and Lower Protocols

They’re are many important protocols that you need knowledge of if you’re troubleshooting complicated networks. First of all there’s TCP, IP and UDP plus a host of application protocols such as DHCP and DNS. Any of these could be an issue if you’re having problems with a network. However often the most difficult to troubleshoot and indeed to understand are the lower level protocols such as ARP. If you don’t have some understanding of these it can be extremely confusing to understand how they interact.

The address resolution protocol often sits in the background happily resolving addresses, however if you get issues it can cause some very difficult problems. If you’re working on some sort of complicated network such as a residential proxy set up or ISP like this, there will be all sorts of hardware resolution requests taking place on both local and remote networks.

Both logical and physical addresses are used for intercommunication on a network. The use of logical addresses permits communication among a wide range of networks and not directly connected devices. The use of physical addresses assists in communication on a single network segment for devices that are directly connected to each other with a switch. In the majority of cases, these two kinds of addressing must collaborate in order for communication to happen.

Consider a scenario where you want to communicate with a device on your network. This device may be a server of some kind or simply another work- station you have to share files with. The application you are utilizing to launch the communication is already aware of the IP address of the remote host (by means of DNS, addressed elsewhere), meaning the system should have all it needs to build the layer 3 through 7 information of the packet it wishes to transmit.

The only piece of info it needs at this point is the layer 2 data link information consisting of the MAC address of the intended host. MAC addresses are required for the reason that a switch that interconnects devices on a network uses a Content Addressable Memory (CAM) table, which specifies the MAC addresses of all devices plugged into each of its ports. When the switch acquires traffic destined for a specific MAC address, it makes use of this table to know through which port to send the traffic.
If the destination MAC address is not known, the transmitting device will definitely first check for the address in its cache; if it is not there, then this must be resolved by means of supplementary communicating on the network.

The resolution procedure that TCP/IP networking (along with IPv4) uses to resolve an IP address to a MAC address is referred to as the Address Resolution Prrotocol (ARP), which is defined in RFC 826. The ARP resolution process uses only two packets: an ARP request and an ARP response.

Source: http://bbciplayerabroad.co.uk/free-trial-of-bbc-iplayer-in-australia/

Network Attacks : Denial of Service

A few years ago being a network administrator was a much easier job. Sure you probably had fewer resources and technology choices for running applications were limited, but there was one crucial difference – the internet. As soon as even one computer on your network was connected to the internet the game changes completely, you have internet access from the network but it works the other way around too. Any server or PC in your network is potentially accessible from the internet too.

A Denial of Service (DOS) attack is any kind of attack that interferes with the function of a computer so that genuine individuals can no longer get access to it. DoS attacks are actually possible on the majority of network equipment, including switches, hosting servers, firewalls, remote access computers, as well as just about every other network resource.  A DoS attack may be specific to a service, such as in an FTP attack, or perhaps an entire machine. The different kinds of DoS are diverse and wide ranging, however, they can be split into 2 distinctive categories that connect to intrusion detection: resource depletion and malicious packet attacks.

Malicious packet DoS attacks work by transmitting abnormal traffic to a host in order to cause the service or the host in itself to crash. Crafted packet DoS attacks occur whenever software is not properly coded to deal with abnormal or unusual traffic. Commonly out-of– spec traffic can easily cause computer software to react unexpectedly and crash. Attackers can utilize crafted packet DoS attacks in order to bring down IDSs, even Snort.A specifically crafted tiny ICMP packet with a size of 1 was discovered to cause Snort v. 1.8.3 to core dump. This particular version of Snort did not actually correctly define the minimum ICMP header dimensions, which in turn made it possible for the DoS to happen.

One of the reasons that the denial of service attacks are so common is that the attacker is extremely difficult to trace.   The most obvious factor behind this is that most of the attacks don’t require valid responses to complete, therefore it’s very hard to identity the source.  In addition to that are the huge number of anonymous  resources available online including VPNs, anonymous proxies and providers of residential IP address networks like these.

Along with out of spec traffic, malicious packets can certainly consist of payloads which cause a system to crash. A packet’s payload is actually taken as input right into a service. If the input is not properly checked, the program can be DoSed. The Microsoft FTP DoS attack demonstrates the comprehensive assortment of DoS attacks readily available to black hats in the wild.The very first step in the attack is actually to start a legitimate FTP connection.The attacker would most likely then issue a command with a wildcard pattern (such as * or?). Within the FTP Web server, a function which processes wildcard sequences in FTP commands does not allocate adequate memory when executing pattern matching. It is actually feasible for the attackers command incorporating a wildcard pattern to cause the FTP service to crash.This DoS, as well as the Snort ICMP DoS, are 2 instances of the many thousands of potential DoS attacks out there.

The additional method to deny service is via resource depletion. A resource depletion DOS attack functions simply by flooding a service with a great deal normal traffic that legitimate users can not gain access to the service. An attacker overrunning a service with typical traffic can certainly exhaust finite resources such as bandwidth, memory, and processor chip cycles.

A classic memory resource exhaustion DoS is a SYN flood. A SYN flood makes use of the TCP three-way handshake. The handshake starts with the client sending a TCP SYN packet. The host then sends out a SYN ACK in response. The handshake is concluded when the client responds with an ACK. If the host does not obtain the returned ACK, the host sits unoccupied and waits with the session open. Each and every open session consumes a certain amount of memory. If sufficient three– way handshakes are launched, the host consumes all of the readily available memory waiting for ACKs.The traffic generated from a SYN flood is normal in appearance. The majority servers are configured these days to leave just a specific number of TCP connections open. One other classic resource depletion attack is the Smurf attack.

A Smurf attack works by capitalizing on open network broadcast addresses.A broadcast address forwards all packets on to just about every host on the destination subnet. Every host on the destination subnet answers to the source address listed in the traffic to the broadcast address. An attacker sends a stream of ICMP echo requests or pings to a broadcast address.This has the effect of magnifying a single ICMP echo request up to 250 times.

Furthermore. the attacker spoofs the origin address in order that the target receives all the ICMP echo reply traffic. An attacker with a 128 Kb/s DSL Net connection can certainly create a 32 Mb/s Smurf flood. DoS attacks commonly utilize spoofed IP addresses due to the fact that the attack succeeds even if the response is misdirected.The attacker requires no response, and in cases like the Smurf attack, wants at all costs to avoid a response.This can make DoS attacks difficult to defend from, and even harder to trace.

Further Reading: http://www.changeipaddress.net/us-ip-address-for-netflix/

Proxy Selection Using Hash Based Function

One of the difficulties in running a large scale proxy infrastructure is how to choose which proxy to use. This is not as straight forward as it sounds and there are various methods commonly used in selecting the best proxy to be used.

In hash-function-based proxy selection, a hash value is calculated from some information in the URL, and the resulting hash value is used to pick the proxy that is used. One approach could be to use the entire URL as data for the hash Function. However, as we’ve seen before, it is harmful to make the proxy selection completely random: some applications expect a given client to contact a given origin server using the same proxy chain.

For this reason, it makes more sense to use the DNS host or domain name in the URL as the basis for the hash function. This way, every URL from a certain origin server host, or domain, will always go through the same proxy server (chain). In practice, it is even safer to use the domain name instead of the full host name (that is, drop the first part of the host- name)—this avoids any cookie problems where a cookie is shared across several servers in the same domain.

It’s also useful when large amounts of data are involved and can indeed be used to switch proxies even during the same connection.  For example if someone is using a proxy to stream video – such as in this article – BBC iPlayer France, then the connection will be live for a considerable time with a significant amount of data.  In these situations, there is also limited requirement for any caching facilities particularly with live video streams.

This approach may be subject to “hot spots”—that is, sites that are very well known and have a tremendous number of requests. However, while the high load may indeed be tremendous at those sites’ servers, the hot spots are considerably scaled down in each proxy server. There are several smaller hot spots from the proxy’s point of view, and they start to balance each other out. I-lash—function-based load balancing in the client can be accomplished by using the client proxy auto-configuration feature (page 322). In proxy servers, this is done through the proxy server’s configuration file, or its API.

Cache Array Routing Protocol [CARP], is an advanced hash function based proxy selection mechanism. It allows proxies to be added and removed from the proxy array Without relocating more than a single proxy’s share of documents. More simplistic hash functions use the module of the URL hash to determine which proxy the URL belongs to. If a proxy gets added or deleted, most of the documents get relocated—that is, their storage place assigned by the hash function changes.

Where the allocations are shown for three and four proxies. Note how most of the documents in the three-proxy scenario are on a different numbered proxy in the four-proxy scenario. Simplistic hash-function-based proxy allocation using modulo of the hash function to determine which proxy to use. When adding a fourth proxy server, many of the proxy assignments change, these changed locations are marked with a diamond. Note that we have numbered the proxies starting from zero in order to be able to use the hash module directly.

John Ferris:

Further Reading Link