Do We Need Encryption for S3?

There are lots of people who hesitate about using cloud based services like S3 and with very good reason. For one it’s important to remember the old saying about the cloud – it’s simply someone else’s computer. The cloud is not some super secure remote service, it’s just a bunch of hard disks controlled and services by someone else. It’s in many ways no difference from accessing any other web based service. So if you worry about what information and details you’re putting on the Craigslist servers, you should also worry about the cloud too!

By default, HTTPS traffic on port 443 and HTTP and HTTPS proxy on port 8080 is inspected. The important benefits from online shopping are convenience of 24/7 shopping from home avoiding traffic and crowds. Routers are special because they have two IP addresses. If the printer does not have an Ethernet connection, then you have to go with the switch plus print server solution. What you have to do then, is to connect the wireless router’s Ethernet port to the switch and then plug your printer to the print server and the print server to the switch. The basics of a wireless computer controlled security camera system and a CCTV system are almost similar. A Linksys wireless router forms the backbone of a local area network that lets users work with wireless laptop computers, media players, and smartphones form anywhere within the router’s effective range. You are also to perform modem reconfiguration or alter the setup of the local area network. Some of the issues that are encountered are related to the setup along with installation of the routers.

Installation requires no previous knowledge, and they’ve got a friendly support team. Computer technical support experts always be best guides to a person to have the top impact. In order to get to that granular of a level, it would be necessary for Google to ask the ISP that issued the IP Address for the identity of the person that was using that IP Address. 1 to 232 – 1. It is necessary that the slave’s server-id must be different from the master’s server-id. 5. Leave the MAC address as default. With the IP address in hand, hearth up Minecraft, click on Multiplayer from the primary menu and add the brand new server or use the direct connect characteristic. You can add a new host site with the New button. Add – Import a new server certificate. For applications to access the services offered by the core TCP/IP protocols in a standard way, network operating systems like Windows Server 2003 make industry-standard application programming interfaces (APIs) available.

Most systems administrators configure machines as the software was developed before version control – that is manually making changes on servers. I do my best to keep my startup sequence as lean as possible, and use several utilities to make sure that various software isn’t sneaking stuff into my startup. Most of the time, we think that network is one of the major problems, but it isn’t. One of the reasons is because YAML takes into account the indentation or the lines so be extra cautious with that space bar. 7. On the protocol and ports options leave everything at its defaults and click next. To filter the Available list by categories or custom-defined sites, click the specified button in the toolbar of the viewer. The rules use the categories defined in the Application Database, network objects and custom objects (if defined). You can use the router to change your IP and you can make the connection secure by built in encryption capabilities of the router. When you develop a webpage, chances are that you are going to want to use some pictures along with those words.

Now you want to buy some virtual dollars. However, if you are into e-commerce and you want to make sure that your clients are protected and their transactions are secured, it will do well if you shift to dedicated server even if it’s more expensive. Adoption of SD-WAN is a self-fulifing prophecy, the increased adoption will only tilt the scale more and more in your favour as an enterprise. IP CCTV is now being installed into new commercial properties to offer businesses high quality security from the starting point of their business, which will ensure that they are ready to deal with security in the best possible way. Just using superman will NOT be sufficient and will cause the login process to fail. You should get a SpeedwayR login. Also does it provide you with video on demand (VOD), you just need to browse the catalog of videos and get it done.

Using a VPN is always an Option

With a VPN server’s IP address attached to your encrypted information, you can browse the internet safely and securely. Your IE should now be configured to browse the net through a proxy server. Changing your IP address and using a Web proxy can help protect your identity, which can come in handy if you’re worried that someone might be snooping on you. On the off chance that you are searching for a dependable security insurance arrangement that additionally gives secure web associations, at that point a VPN is an unquestionable requirement have application for every one of your PCs and cell phones. Of course these savings are usually passed down to the consumer of these web hosting services, which in the end benefits everybody involved with these shared IP. The TCP part ensures that data is completely sent and received at the other end. This is how you will organize your data.

It doesn’t guarantee security of course, but it does add an important layer which is extremely useful. For a start the encryption protects all the data in transit, which means that those important sales videos you have created don’t get intercepted while you’re emailing them to your marketing manager over an insecure link. They may not be safe if she leaves her laptop somewhere but at least it won’t be your fault!

However, be aware that this will only fool the most simple of IP detectors, as your real IP address will still be displayed in other areas of the HTTP header that is sent to the target webpage. What are the components of an IP address? For larger servers, 100mbit speeds are ideal. At the bottom of the PuTTYgen window are three parameters choices including SSH-1 (RSA), SSH-2 RSA, and SSH-2 DSA. This will open the Address list dialog window as seen below. Ability to frequently change IP address increases privacy. Each configuration change is logged and referenced by a ‘configuration path’ with a time stamp, the username of the administrator and an action. Always take time to test the system in full after making the changes. This means that low powered server such as a Pentium 4 2 GHz, 512 DDR RAM, 80 GB HDD can handle several thousand traders at the same time. IP location of the proxy, so that it looks as if the proxy server is the client.

No Comments Networks, News, VPN

Online Opportunities of a Ticketmaster Proxy

Many people make their living online nowadays including myself. In many ways the methods and variety are just as widespread as normal jobs and employment. People run blogs, websites, buy and sell or simply provide advice or coaching. Many have moved their traditional, physical shops online, preferring the low cost. global reach of a website to the expense of bricks and mortar. You can hardly blame most of them, even if the rewards are smaller, which is rarely the case, the pressure and lifestyle is often usually enough to compensate.

However what’s becoming increasingly apparent is that with the upsurge in the digital world, people are becoming aware that they have two identities an online one and an offline one too. It’s the digital personae that we are going to talk about in this post in regards a particular area of online enterprises which are less than popular.

I’m talking about those group of people who become extremely skilled at buying up rare and hard to get items and reselling them at vast profits. Now I’m not talking about those who travel and buy and sell locally – some of this is all done from an armchair or an office without moving a bit. The particular example I’m going to reference is that of concert tickets.

Now if you’ve ever tried to buy some super popular concert tickets then you’ll know how hard it can be. Even if you sit ready to click on buy as soon as the tickets are on sale, then there’s no guarantee you’ll get any. In fact it’s an extremely frustrating experience if you play by the rules, as there are plenty who simply don’t.

Whereas most us have a single identity online, many people have tens or even hundreds of different identities and they use those to their advantage. While we’ll happily click on a single button to try and grab some tickets. Other people are running computer software designed to grab all the best tickets in milliseconds. Basically even if you have super reactions you won’t beat computer software or ticket bots sitting on super fast connections ready to pounce.

These people are often referred to as ‘ticket scalpers’ and they make huge amounts of money reselling concert tickets at inflated prices. In the UK some of these companies are huge organisations, who are even floated on the stock exchange but in reality are little more than efficient, digital ticket touts.

So how do they do this, well first of all they use software called ticket bots to ensure that the entire transaction is completed in a second or two. What’s more the software can run in multiple threads so they can make many purchases simultaneously. Which is part pf the reason why so many tickets disappear in seconds after release (and why the servers are often overloaded!)

The second part is to create these different identities for the bot to exploit. Most of the big ticket sellers like Ticketmaster try and prevent multiple purchases so to buy lots you have to pretend to be multiple customers. The simplest way to do this is by using proxies and multiple IP addresses. However you can’t just use any proxies or addresses, if you read this article about the best Ticketmaster proxies that are available you’ll see what I mean.

These can’t be ordinary, run of the mill proxies, they have to have very specific IP addresses in order to function. You certainly can’t use the sort of addresses that are shared by thousands of people to watch UK TV online (like this one), simply because they’re probably all ready been used and blocked from buying. The other increasingly important factor is that these anonymous IP addresses are classified as residential and not commercial which is actually very difficult to achieve.

There are lot of other factors that have to be considered, but in reality it doesn’t cost a fortune to set up this sort of infrastructure. Indeed many people just do it from their home in their spare time and pocket serious money by reselling tickets to the very popular concerts. Obviously, it’s on very dubious ground and the ticket sites are always trying to block these attempts but it’s very difficult to stop the smaller scale efforts. People buying a dozen or so tickets through a few credit cards and IP addresses are very difficult to stop but if you get many people doing this loads of tickets are taken off the legitimate market straight away.

Arranging Wireless Computers For The Greatest Signal Gain

There are some issues to consider when arranging wireless computers on a wireless home or business network.

One is the distance between wireless systems the other is potential sources of interference with the wireless radio signals


Proper antenna configuration is a critical factor in maximizing radio range. As a general guide, range increases in proportion to antenna height.

I know this might seem difficult to do but it’s not as difficult as it sounds just try and move the wireless router or antenna to a different location – higher is always better when arranging wireless computers

Wireless Distances Can Be Tricky

When arranging wireless computers, although there are usually ways to extend distance when using signal boosters and multiple wireless routers or access points.

Wi-Fi networking can work through most walls and other building structures, but the range is much better in open spaces.

The range of wireless adapters outdoors can be up to 1500 feet (457 meters)
Indoors at up to 300 feet (91 meters)
But Don’t Forget That These Ranges Are Under Ideal Circumstances Without Interference.

Quick Tip: When arranging wireless computers. The indoor range is the most sensitive and really depends on the structural elements of your home.

Which Will Have The Best Range

Range of a wireless system is based more on the frequency Then the band that it operates in vs. the standard that it uses.

Although makers of 802.11a equipment might disagree, the 5GHz frequency that 802.11a wireless equipment operates in results in a shorter range than 802.11b or g products when used in the typical residential environment.

802.11b and g-based equipment operates in the lower-frequency 2.4GHz frequency band, which suffers from less signal reduction when passing through the walls and ceilings of your home.

802.11b and 802.11g’s range advantages will tend to be neutralized if your wireless LAN is set up in an “open field” environment that has no obstructions between the Access Points and clients.

Interference With Home Wireless Devices

Large amounts of metals in the walls can be a problem for example heating-air conditioning-metal lath, especially older homes. Wireless networks broadcast on the same 2.4Ghz frequency as cordless phones and microwave ovens.

These devices are not supposed to interfere with each other, but occasionally they might, so try and keep your computers away from the deices (ex: micro wave ovens-cordless phones) this is especially true for base stations when arranging wireless computers.

Although normal desktops which function without mission critical services are relatively unaffected by the odd drop in connection.  That’s not the case if you’re running servers which provide remote access or applications.  For example always on systems such as firewalls and proxies like these rotating proxies should be shielded from any interference if possible.

The 802.11a equipment , and especially the dual band A and G products, is appealing in cases where there is potential conflicts, specifically, if you are heavily dependent on 2.4GHz cordless phones, and most of the cordless phones use this range.

Try This And Overcome The Wireless Obstruction

Keep your wireless devices away from the above appliances

Raise your access point and keep them out of the way of office workers which can cause interference

Move the PC away from any metal cabinets to a better location that’s not under your desk

Use a repeater that rebroadcast a signal from the access point, can eliminate dead spots

Software Testing: Static Analysis

There are several phases to a proper test analysis, the initial stage is normally the static review. This is the process of examining the static code initially to check for simple errors such as syntax problems or fundamental flaws in both design and application. It’s not normally a long exhaustive check, unless of course some obvious or major issues are identified at this stage.

Just like reviews, static analysis looks out for problems without executing the code. Nonetheless, as opposed to reviews static analysis is undertaken once the code has actually been written. Its objective is to find flaws in software source code and software models. Source code is actually any series of statements recorded some human-readable computer programming language which can then be transposed to equivalent computer executable code– this is normally produced by the developer. A software model is an image of the final approach developed using techniques such as Unified Modeling Language (UML); it is commonly generated by a software designer.  Normally this should be accessed and stored securely, with restrictions on who can alter this.  If accessed remotely it should be through a dedicated line if possible or at least using some sort of secure residential VPN (such as this).

Static analysis can find issues that are hard to find during the course of test execution by analyzing the program code e.g. instructions to the computer can be in the style of control flow graphs (how control passes between modules) and data flows (making certain data is identified and accurately used). The value of static analysis is:

Early discovery of defects just before test execution. Just like reviews, the sooner the issue is located, the cheaper and simpler it is to fix.

Early warning regarding questionable aspects of the code or development, by the calculation of metrics, such as a high-complexity measure. If code is too complicated it could be a lot more prone to error or a lot less dependent on the focus given to the code by programmers. If they recognize that the code has to be complicated then they are more probable to check and double check that this is correct; nevertheless, if it is unexpectedly complex there is a higher chance that there will certainly be a problem in it.

Identification of defects not easily found by dynamic testing, such as development standard non-compliances as well as detecting dependencies and inconsistencies in software models, such as hyperlinks or user interfaces that were actually either incorrect or unknown before static analysis was carried out.

Enhanced maintainability of code and design. By executing static analysis, defects will be removed that would certainly typically have increased the volume of maintenance needed after ‘go live’. It can also recognize complex code which if fixed will make the code more understandable as well as consequently easier to manage.

Prevention of defects. By pinpointing the defect early in the life cycle it is actually a great deal easier to identify why it was there in the first place (root cause analysis) than during test execution, therefore providing information on possible process improvement that could be made to prevent the same defect appearing again.

Source: Finding Residential Proxies, James Williams

Don’t Expect Internet Privacy by Default

When the internet was first conceived back in the 1980s, well the date varies depending on your definition – there was little thought about security. The date of course is disputed but I prefer 1983 when TCP/IP was adopted by ARPANET, however the lack of security is a matter of fact. It was a form on communication allowing disparate devices and people to talk to each other and no-one expected it to end up where it is. Unfortunately to allow cross compatibility then compromises need to be made, the security of your data is one of them.

However there are methods to add some security, web sites try with SSL implementation but the end user can assist to. Most users who have security concerns or have experienced cyber crime, will have come across VPN software. This is a virtual private network which can be created to encrypt your data as it travels across the internet. These come in all shapes and sizes from basic personal security ones, to advances residential IP rotating proxies like these ones.

With regards to lots of people there is a pervasive picture of a VPN user, it’s something similar to a young person sporting a hoodie, hunched up in a coffee shop with their laptop. They’re possibly attempting to hack into some federal government computers and are actually on the run from the authorities. As a VPN conceals your geographic location and your web traffic there’s a common idea that the individual is up to no good and certainly has something to hide.

The reality is literally a very long way from this viewpoint and even though numerous hackers do indeed use VPNs consistently so do an awful number of ordinary individuals. Most large corporations have been using VPNs for decades to support inbound connections from remote users. If a salesman needs access to the product database on the company’s network it’s much simpler to allow them to connect through the internet and view the latest version. This is much more secure than travelling around with DVDs and obviously assures that he or she has the most recent versions.

If you make any type of normal connection over the internet, all your web traffic is pretty much viewable, i.e anyone with a mind can intercept and see it. In the event that you’re logging and connecting to a secured share then this would certainly consist of usernames and security passwords. So in order to protect these connections, you might commonly install a VPN client on the laptop computer and make certain it’s used to encrypt the connection back to the company network. It is actually completely legitimate and indeed intelligent business practice.

Regular home users will make use of VPNs for very similar reasons. Essentially the internet is insecure and there is minimal provision for security integrated in automatically. Sure you can access secure sites through things like SSL when you have to enter a credit card or payment information. However this is the exception not the rule and most websites are actually not secure and the vast majority of information flies across the wires in clear text.

In addition to the general insecurity of the web, there’s the additional issue of privacy. Your surfing data is easily available via a variety of sources. For a start, there’s a complete list in your ISP of every little thing you do on the internet and depending on where you reside this can be routinely and easily accessed. Using a VPN stops this, transforming your internet activity into an encrypted list which is unreadable without your permission. Are they used by cyber criminals and terrorists? Sure but also by millions of people who think that what they do online shouldn’t be part of public records.

The VPN systems are becoming more and more sophisticated simply driven by demand and the risks of recognition. There are all sorts of variations including enabling different setups and ports to dodge detection. You can also get them to use home based IP addresses through specific residential IP providers –

In a large number of countries VPNs are definitely not illegal but simply a simple business and personal security tool. However in some countries this is not the case and you can get into trouble if caught using them. Countries that actually ban the use of VPN include places like China, Iraq, Belarus and Turkey. Various other countries merely allow authorized services which usually indicate those which can be jeopardized if required. Individuals still use VPNs in the majority of these nations indeed in Turkey almost all expats use one to view things like British and American TV on-line. It’s actually quite difficult to detect a VPN in use however that doesn’t stop it technically being illegal in those locations.


Subroutine – Passing Parameters

Passing parameters into Subroutines, following examples are from Perl scripts.

Parameters are passed into subroutines in a list with a special name — it’s called @_ and it doesn’t conform to the usual rules of variable naming. This name isn’t descriptive, so it’s usual to copy the incoming variables into other variables within the subroutine.

Here’s what we did at the start of the getplayer subroutine: $angle = $_[O]; If multiple parameters are going to be passed, you’ll write something like: ($angle,$units) = @_; Or if a list is passed to a subroutine: @pqr = @_; In each of these examples, you’ve taken a copy of each of the incoming parameters; this means that if you alter the value held in the variable, that will not alter the value of any variable in the calling code.

This copying is a wise thing to do; later on, when other people use your subroutines, they may get a little annoyed if you change the value of an incoming variable!   Although this method can also be used to hack into websites or divert video streams to bypass geo-blocking for example to watch BBC News outside the UK  like this.

Returning values Our first example concludes the subroutine with a return statement: return ($response); which very clearly states that the value of $response is to returned as the result of running the subroutine. Note that if you execute a return statement earlier in your subroutine, the rest of the code in the subroutine will be skipped over.

For example: sub flines { $fnrd = $_[0]; open (FH,$fnrd) or return (—1); @tda = ; close PH; return (scalar (@tda)); l will return a -1 value if the file requested couldn’t be opened.

Writing subroutines in a separate file
Subroutines are often reused between programs. You really won’t want to rewrite the same code many times, and you’ll
certainly not want to have to maintain the same thing many times over Here’s a simple technique and checklist that you can use in your own programs. This is from a Perl coding lesson, but can be used in any high level programming language
which supports subroutines.

Plan of action:
a) Place the subroutines in a separate file, using a file extension .pm
b) Add a use statement at the top of your main program, calling
in that tile of subroutines
c) Add a 1; at the end oi the file of subroutines. This is necessary since use executes any code that’s not included in subroutine blocks as the tile is loaded, and that code must return a true value — a safety feature to prevent people using TV channels and files that weren’t designed to be used.

No Comments News, Protocols, VPN

Network Programming : What are Subroutines?

What are subroutines and why would you use them?The limitations of “single block code” You won’t be the first person in the world to want to :

  • be able to read options from the command line
  • interpret form input in a CGI script –
  • pluralize words in English

But it doesn’t stop there, lets choose a few other seemingly simple but useful tasks that your code may need to accomplish.  You won’t be the first person in your organisation to want to

  • output your organisation’s copyright statement
  • validate an employee code
  • automatically contact a resource on your web site

These are the sort of tasks that may need to happen again and again, both in the same piece of codes or perhaps across different programs. You may need to handle the same data in several programs, or to handle in your programs the same data that your colleagues handle in theirs. And you may want to perform the same series of instructions at several places within the same program. Almost all programming languages, at least the high level ones can handle these operation including things like Perl. Even the beginners who start off with all your code has been in a single file and indeed has “flowed” from top to bottom.

You can use these subroutines to perform tasks that need to be repeated over and over again. In the context of network programming you could use a specific subroutine to assign a British IP address to a client or hardware device,
You have not been able to call the same code in two different places ‘ You have not been able to share code between programs — copying is not normally an option as it gives maintenance problems ~ You have not used your colleague’s code, nor code that’s available for everyone on the CPAN, nor additional code that’s so often needed that it’s shipped with the Perl distribution. First use of subroutines The first computer programs were written rather like the ones that we’ve written so far.

Each one for its own specific task. In time, programmers (said to be naturally lazy people) noticed that they could save effort by placing commonly used sections of code into separate blocks which could be called whenever and wherever they were needed. Such separate blocks were variously known as functions, procedures or subroutines.

We’ll use the word “subroutine” because Perl does! Structured programming The subroutine approach was then taken to extreme so that all the code was put into separate blocks, each of which could be described as performing a single task. For example, the program I run might be described as performing the task of “reporting on all towns with names matching a pattern”.  You could then split that task into multiple tasks for example creating multiple network connections to different servers.  On a multimedia server you could call the relevant subroutines depending on which channel was to be displayed e’g one for English channel, one for commercial ITV channel abroad  and another for a French variant.  All of these could be separate subroutines called from within the main code when the user presses a button.

No Comments News, Protocols

Cryptographic Methods and Authentication

It used to be the domain of mathematicians and spies but know cryptography plays an important part in all our lives. It is important if we want to continue to use the internet for commerce and any sort of financial transactions. All our basic web traffic exists in the clear and is transported via a myriad of shared network equipment. Which means basically anything can be intercepted and read unless we protect it in some way – the most accessible option is to use encryption.

Cryptographic methods are utilized by software to maintain computing and data resources safe-,effectively shielding them with secret code or their,’key.   It’s not always necessary of course, the requirements are heavily dependent on what the connection is being used for.  For example there’s little point encrypting compressed streams like audio and video in normal circumstance, no-one is at risk from intercepting you streaming UK TV abroad from your computer.The key holder is the only individual who has access to the secure information. That individual might share the key with others, permitting them to also get into the information. In a digital world, and especially from the envisaged world of electronic commerce, the demand for safety which is backed by cryptographic systems is paramount. At the future, a person’s initial approach to most electronic devices, and especially to networked electronic devices, will demand cryptography working from the background. Whenever security is necessary, the first point from the human-to machine interface is that of authentication.

The electronic system should know with whom it’s dealing. But just how is this done?  Strong authentication is based on three characteristics which a user needs to have:

  • What the user knows.
  • What the user has.
  • Who the user is.

Today, a typical authentication routine will be to present what you’ve, a token like an identification card, then to uncover what you know, a pin number or password. In a very brief time in the future, the ,who you are kind of identification would be common, first on computers, and after that on an entire selection of merchandise, progressively phasing out the need for us to memorize contact numbers and passwords.  Indeed many entertainment websites are looking at developments in this field with a view to incorporating identity checks in a seamless way.  For example to allow access to UK TV license fee payers who want to watch the BBC from Ireland for example.

But where does the cryptography come to the equation? . In the easiest level, you might offer a system. Like a pc terminal, a password. The system checks your password. You can be logged on to the system. In this example of quite weak authentication, cryptographic methods are utilized to encrypt your password stored inside the system. If your password was held in clear text, rather than cipher text, then a person with an aptitude for programming could soon find the password inside the system and start to usurp and obtaining access to all of the information and system resources you’re permitted to use.

Cryptography does its best to defend the secret, which is your password. Now consider a system that requires stronger authentication. The automatic teller machine is a good example. To perform transactions in an Automated teller machine terminal, you want an ATM Card and a pin number. Inside the terminal, information is encrypted. The information the terminal transmits to the bank is also encrypted. Security is better, but not perfect, since the system will authenticate an individual who isn’t the owner of the card / pin number. The person might be a relative utilizing your card by permission, or he can be a burglar who has just relieved you of your pocket and is about to save you of your life savings. Time, you could think, for stronger authentication. Systems currently in field tests require an additional attribute based on your identity to strengthen the authentication procedure.

TCP/UDP Port Numbers

Both TCP and UDP require port numbers in order to communicate with the upper layers.  These port numbers are used to keep track of varying conversations which criss-cross the network simultaneously. The origin port numbers are dynamically assigned by the source host, most of them will be  at some number above 1024.   All the numbers below 1024 are reserved for specific services as defined in RFC 1700 – they are known as well known port numbers.

Any virtual circuit which is not assigned with a specified service will always be assigned a random port number from this range above 1024.    The port numbers will identify the source and destination in the TCP segment.    Here’s some common port numbers that are associated with well known services:

  • FTP – 21
  • Telnet -23
  • DNS – 53
  • TFTP – 69
  • POP3 – 110
  • News – 144

As you can see all the port numbers assigned are under 1023, whereas above 1024 and above are assigned by the upper layers to set up connections with other hosts.

The internet layer exists for two main reasons, routing and providing a specific network interface to the upper layers. As regards to routing none of the upper or lower layer protocols have any specific functions. Al the routing functionality is primarily the job of the internet layer. As well as routing the internet layer has a second function – to provide a single network interface and gateway to the upper layer protocols.
Application programmers, use this layer to to access the functionality into their application for network access. It is important as it ensures that there is a standardization to access the network layer. Therefore the same functions apply whether you’re on a ethernet or Token ring network.

IP provides a single network interface to access all of these upper layer protocols. The following protocols specifically work at the internet layer:

  • Internet Protocol (IP)
  • Internet Protocol (ICMP)
  • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
  • Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP)

The internet protocol is essentially the Internet layer, all the other protocols merely support this functionality. So if for instance you buy UK proxy connections then IP would look at each packet’s address. Then using a routing table, the protocol would decide where the packet should be routed next. The other protocols, the network access layer ones at the bottom of the OSI model are not able to see the entire network topology as they only have connections to the physical addresses.

In order to decide on the specific route, the IP layer needs to answer two specific questions,. The first is which network is the destination host on and the second is what is the ID on that network.   these can be determined and allocated as the logical and hardware address.  The logical address is better known as the IP address and is a unique identifier on any network of the location of a specific host.  These are allocated by specific location and are used by websites to determine resources, so for example to watch BBC iPlayer in Ireland you’d need to route through a UK IP address and not your assigned Irish address.


Using SSL for Email and Internet Protocols

If you want to increase the security attached to your email messaging then there’s several routes you can take.  First of all, you should look at digitally signing and encrypting all your email messages.  There are several applications that can do this, or you could switch your emails to the cloud and look at a server based email system.    Most of the major suppliers of web based secure mail are extremely secure with regards to interception and end point security, however obviously you have to trust your email with a third party.

Many companies won’t be happy with outsourcing their messaging like this as it’s often the most crucial part of a companies digital communications.   However what are the options if you want to operate a secure and digitally advanced email messaging service within your corporation?  Well the first place to investigate is increasing the security of authentication and data transmission.   There are plenty of RFCs (Request for Comments) on these subjects particularly related to emails and their related protocols.

Here’s a few of the RFC based protocols related to Email  :

  • Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3) – the simple but effective protocol used to retrieve email messages from an inbox on a dedicated email server.
  • Internet Message Access Protocol 4 (IMAP4) – this is usually used to retrieve any messages stored on an email server. It includes those stored in inboxes, and other types of message boxes such as drafts, sent items and public folders.
  • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) – very popular and ubiquitous email protocol, generally just used to send email messages to recipients.
  • Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) – Not specifically an email protocol, however can be used as such if required! It’s normally used to post and download newsgroup messages from news servers.  Perhaps slightly outdated now, but a seriously efficient protocol that can be used for distributing emails.

The big security issue with all these protocols however is that the majority in default mode send their messages in plain text. You can obviously counteract this by encrypting on a client level, the easiest method is by simply using a VPN. Many people already use VPN to access things like various media channels – read this post about BBC iPlayer VPN which is not exclusively about security more about bypassing region blocks.

However remember when an email message is transmitted in clear text it can be intercepted at various levels. Anyone with a decent network sniffer and access to the data could read the information and message content. The solution is in some ways obvious and implied in the title of this post – implement SSL. Using this extra security layer you can protect all the simple RFC based email protocols, and better still they can slot simply to interact with standard email systems like Exchange.

It works and is easy to implement and also when SSL is implemented the server will accept connections on the SSL sport and not the standard oirt that the email protocol normally uses. If you have only one or two users who need a high level of email security then using a virtual private network might be sufficient. There are many sophisticated services that come with support – for instance this BBC Live VPN is based in Prague and has some high level security experts who work in support.

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