DNS Basics Everyone Should Know

Today, there are individuals attempting to determine exactly how the Domain Name System-known as DNS by the amazing kids, and also by association, the Internet all at once, works. Unfortunately, many of these effective people, and others, don’t recognize just what DNS is. This video is for them as well as for any individual else that wants to learn about DNS. We are mosting likely to look at the essentials of what DNS is, exactly how it functions, as well as just how if you utilize the Internet, it affects your life daily.

The Domain Name System is doubtless one of one of the most vital and also over-looked parts of the Internet. Without DNS, the Internet as we understand it today, would certainly fall down, and also we would certainly all be licking stamps to pay our costs, driving to a real shop to purchase something, checking out the paper to see exactly what movies were revealing, or getting little round pieces of plastic called CDs to get our songs.

Exactly how can we claim that DNS is this crucial?

Most of us understand (or should know), that the computers that make up the Internet are established in large networks that communicate with each other by means of underground (or under water), cords and are recognized utilizing strings of numbers called IP addresses. Considering that the majority of us do not have the mental capacity to sort through as well as keep numerous mathematical collection, DNS is utilized to translate an actual name right into these numbers. But how does the Domain Name System function? In an internet browser let’s say you go into the URL, www.example.com as a. well, as an example. When you type example.com right into your address bar, you will in fact be looking for that domain. Of course there is a dot at the end of the domain. One that you never see. As well as one that you never kind. When you enter google.com, you are really most likely to the web page www.google.com.

Anyway that end dot stands for the origin of the Internet’s name space.The Root! Why is this so crucial? Due to the fact that this is where it all starts. When you initially look for the domain name ., your browser and your os will certainly first determine if they understand what the IP address is already. It could be set up on your computer system or maybe in memory, just what the awesome youngsters call cache. No, not cash as in cash money; the memory cache, C-A-C-H-E. Keep up, will certainly ya ?! Anyway … So the web browser asks the operating system and they both have no idea where the domain name is. Just what takes place next? The operating system is set up to ask a dealing with name web server, for IP addresses is does unknown. This dealing with name web server is the workhorse of the DNS lookup. It is either set up by hand or instantly within your operating system. Your os asks (or questions), the fixing name web server for the right domain. The dealing with name server might or could not have this in memory or, you recognize, cache.

Yes the C-A-C-H-E one, not the … never mind. For this demo, it does not. The only point that dealing with name web servers need to understand, is where to locate the origin name web servers. Yes, that enigmatic dot that appears at the end of every domain name you type right into that address bar. The root name servers will respond with “I do not know, But I do know where to find the com name web servers. Attempt there.” The COM name servers are called the Top Level Domain name servers or TLD name servers. The fixing name server then takes all of this information from the origin name web servers, puts it in its cache, and afterwards goes directly to the COM TLD name servers. When the settling name web server queries the domain, the TLD name web servers react, “I don’t know, yet I do recognize where to find the http://residentialip.net/so-what-are-atc-proxies/ name web servers. Try there.” This following set of name servers are the reliable name servers. So how did the COM TLD name servers know which reliable name web servers to utilize? With the help of the domain name’s registrar.

When a domain name is acquired, the registrar is informed which reliable name web servers that domain need to use. They notify the company responsible for the leading level domain (the windows registry), and tell them to update the TLD name web servers. So … anyway … The settling name server takes the action from the TLD name web server, stores it in cache, and afterwards quizs the example.com name servers. At this point, the reliable name server will certainly state, “Hey! I recognize where that is! Tell your browser to head to the IP Address 192.168.1.1! The settling name server takes this details from the authoritative name web server, puts it in cache, and gives the reply to the os. The os after that provides this to the internet browser as well as the web browser after that makes a connection to the IP address requesting the website address. Pretty amazing huh? While the process seems complex-and, think me it is, this entire cycle take less time compared to it takes you to blink an eye.

DNS was developed to work extremely quick as well as efficiently. It is an essential part of the Internet. When you comprehend this, you can plainly see the many various elements and also organizations that are responsible for a solitary DNS lookup. One lookup! There is a settling name server, the root name server, the TLD name web servers, and also the authoritative name servers. If anyone were to considerably change or filter any kind of part of the DNS process, it can lead to catastrophe.

More from the author at http://www.uktv-online.com/entertainment/how-to-unblock-us-netflix/

No Comments Networks, Protocols

Arranging Wireless Computers For The Greatest Signal Gain

There are some issues to consider when arranging wireless computers on a wireless home or business network.

One is the distance between wireless systems the other is potential sources of interference with the wireless radio signals

 

Proper antenna configuration is a critical factor in maximizing radio range. As a general guide, range increases in proportion to antenna height.

I know this might seem difficult to do but it’s not as difficult as it sounds just try and move the wireless router or antenna to a different location – higher is always better when arranging wireless computers

Wireless Distances Can Be Tricky

When arranging wireless computers, although there are usually ways to extend distance when using signal boosters and multiple wireless routers or access points.

Wi-Fi networking can work through most walls and other building structures, but the range is much better in open spaces.

The range of wireless adapters outdoors can be up to 1500 feet (457 meters)
Indoors at up to 300 feet (91 meters)
But Don’t Forget That These Ranges Are Under Ideal Circumstances Without Interference.

Quick Tip: When arranging wireless computers. The indoor range is the most sensitive and really depends on the structural elements of your home.

Which Will Have The Best Range

Range of a wireless system is based more on the frequency Then the band that it operates in vs. the standard that it uses.

Although makers of 802.11a equipment might disagree, the 5GHz frequency that 802.11a wireless equipment operates in results in a shorter range than 802.11b or g products when used in the typical residential environment.

802.11b and g-based equipment operates in the lower-frequency 2.4GHz frequency band, which suffers from less signal reduction when passing through the walls and ceilings of your home.

802.11b and 802.11g’s range advantages will tend to be neutralized if your wireless LAN is set up in an “open field” environment that has no obstructions between the Access Points and clients.

Interference With Home Wireless Devices

Large amounts of metals in the walls can be a problem for example heating-air conditioning-metal lath, especially older homes. Wireless networks broadcast on the same 2.4Ghz frequency as cordless phones and microwave ovens.

These devices are not supposed to interfere with each other, but occasionally they might, so try and keep your computers away from the deices (ex: micro wave ovens-cordless phones) this is especially true for base stations when arranging wireless computers.

Although normal desktops which function without mission critical services are relatively unaffected by the odd drop in connection.  That’s not the case if you’re running servers which provide remote access or applications.  For example always on systems such as firewalls and proxies like these rotating proxies should be shielded from any interference if possible.

The 802.11a equipment , and especially the dual band A and G products, is appealing in cases where there is potential conflicts, specifically, if you are heavily dependent on 2.4GHz cordless phones, and most of the cordless phones use this range.

Try This And Overcome The Wireless Obstruction

Keep your wireless devices away from the above appliances

Raise your access point and keep them out of the way of office workers which can cause interference

Move the PC away from any metal cabinets to a better location that’s not under your desk

Use a repeater that rebroadcast a signal from the access point, can eliminate dead spots

Introduction to IP Routing

Conceptually IP routing is pretty straight forward, especially when you look at it from the hosts point of view.  If the destination is directly connected such as a direct link or on the same Ethernet network then the IP datagram is simply forwarded to it’s destination.  If it’s not connected then the host simply send the datagram to it’s default router and lets this handle the next stage of the delivery.  This simple example illustrates most scenarios, for example if an IP packet was being routed through a proxy to allow access to the BBC iPlayer – like this situation.

The basis of IP routing is that it is done on a hop-by-hop basis. The Internet Protocol does not know the complete route to any destination except those directly connected to it.  Ip routing relies on sending the datagram to the next hop router – assuming  this host is closer to the destination until it reaches a router which is directly connected to the destination.

IP routing performs the following –

  • Searches the routing table to see if there is a matching network and host ID.  If there is the packet can be transferred through to the destination.
  • Search the routing table for an entry that matches the network ID.  It only needs one entry for an entire network and the packet can then be sent to the indicated next hop.
  • If all other searches fail then look for the entry marked – ’default’.  The packet then is sent to the next hop router associated with this entry.

If all these searches fail then the datagram is not  marked deliverable.  Even if it has a custom address perhaps an IP address for Netflix routing, it still will not matter.  In reality most searches will fail the initial two searches and be transferred to the default gateway which could be a router or even a proxy site which forwards to the internet.

If the packet cannot be delivered (usually down to some fault or configuration error) then an error message is generated and sent back to the original host.  The two key points to remember is that default routes can be specified for all packets even when the destination and network ID are not known.  The ability to specify specific routes to networks without having to specify the exact host makes the whole system work – routing tables thus contain a few thousand destinations instead of several million!!

It also involves the protocol to cope with complicated and disparate environments with ease.  It’s arguably one of the reasons why the internet has developed so quickly.  Even when we operate complicated client side tools like this Smart DNS Tool designed to access BBC iPlayer abroad, which rotates our IP addresses every few minute.  The protocol is able to reconnect and complete connections even when the client is changing and rotating it’s addresses.

 

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)

For many of us a network is either our little home setup consisting of perhaps a modem and wireless access point and a few connected devices, or perhaps that huge global wide network – the internet.  Whatever the size all networks need to allow communication between the various devices connected to them.  Just like human beings need languages to communicate so do networks only in this context we call them ‘protocols’.

The internet is built primarily using TCP/IP protocols to communicate, this is used to transport information between ‘web clients’ and ‘web servers’.   It’s not enough though to enable the media rich content delivered to our web browsers and a host of secondary protocols site above the main transport protocol – the most important one which enables the world wide web is called HTTP.

This provides a method for web browsers to access content stored on web servers, which is created using HTML (Hypertext Markup Language).  HTML documents contain text, graphics and video but also hyperlinks to other locations on the world wide web.   HTTP is responsible for processing these links and enabling the client/server communication which results.

Without HTTP the world wide web simply wouldn’t exist and if you want to see it’s origins search for RFC 1945 where you’ll find HTTP defined as an application level protocol designed with the lightness and speed necessary for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems.   It is a stateless, generic and object orientated protocol which can be used for a huge variety of tasks – crucially it can be used on a variety of platforms which means it doesn’t matter whether you’re platform your computer is on (linux, Windows or Mac for instance) – you can still access the web content via HTTP.

The content is largely irrelevant as well although obviously your computer may need plugins or codecs in order to handle things like specific video formats.  The fact is that the protocol doesn’t limit you in any way.  I can just as easily watch something like the BBC iPlayer on a high end Unix server as I can on a cheap desktop PC.  Indeed in many environments this has become to be a problem where traffic into corporate networks is rising rapidly because so many formats can be supported under HTTP.

It’s incredible to see something like a video being streamed across the internet, across many different forms of hardware all encapsulated in a single web page powered by HTTP.   When many people worried that tehir access to the BBC iPlayer stopped working last year, it was thought it could be some sort of compatibility problems.  In truth it was simply the BBC VPN not working that most ex-pats used to bypass the geo-blocking introduced earlier in the decade.

So what happens? When someone types a web name or address into the address field of their web browser, the browser attempts to locate the address on the network it is connected to.  This can either be a local address or more commonly it will look out on to the internet looking for the designated web server.   HTTP is the command and control protocol which enables communication between the client and the web server allowing commands to be passed between the two of them.   HTML is the formatting language of the web pages which are transferred when you access a web site.

The HTTP connection between the client and server can be secured in two specific ways – using secure HTTP (SHTTP) or Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) which both allow the information transmitted to be encrypted and thus protected.  It should be noted though that the vast majority of communication is standard HTTP and is transmitted in clear text insecurely which is why so many people use proxies and VPNs like this to protect their connections.

Choosing the Right Proxies for Instagram

In the technology world, all proxies are not created equally.  Indeed there is a huge variation of the servers and their respective IP addresses which can often be confusing.  It’s almost 30 years now since the first proxies were created in the CERN labs and in the intervening time, they have changed into all sorts of different formats.  The very first proxies were actually just simple gateways and in many environments they remain just like this.  However the global network that is the internet means that proxies now have to deal with a whole lot more protocols and communication metrics.

The use of proxies has also developed greatly too, especially as they have slowly migrated from the server room out into internet.  However not only is the actual server configuration important so is the IP address ranges that are assigned to it.  Now obviously the operating system does have some impact, after all an outdated copy of IIS installed on a version of Windows NT is going to have a serious amount of vulnerabilities built into it.   Yet for many purposes this is not as important as the actual IP addresses that are assigned to the server.

Take for example people who want to use proxies to run multiple accounts on social media platforms like Instagram.   This is a very popular social site which focuses on the upload and sharing of online photos.  Over the passed few years it has developed from a simple photo album site to one of the rivals to sites like Facebook.  As it has millions of users, then there are lots of people who now make money from running various accounts.  The issue is that Instagram only want people to run single accounts and takes many steps to block multiple or concurrent access.

To bypass these blocks there’s only one real solution – hiding your real IP address when accessing multiple accounts.  Most of the entrepreneurs use proxies in order to achieve this.  The key to achieving this is to minimize the footprint so that each account is being accessed by a completely different person.   Now just picking up a free proxy address from the internet is obviously possible however it’s an extremely bad idea for a variety of reasons.  However the main one is that often these are already being used to access Instagram and therefore you risk your account being flagged too.  This is one of the reasons that people using the site for business purposes will almost always use private proxies for Instagram whenever they can.

These private servers have two crucial components – firstly they are not used by anyone else, so you know that some spammer isn’t trying to use them for fake likes or account management.  The secondly is that the very best ones have residential IP addresses assigned to them.  This is also important as currently most proxies have commercial IP address ranges assigned as they generally reside in datacentres.  However Instagram and many other sites know that their genuine home customers will never have these sorts of IP addresses at all.

So they are often flagged as suspicious and commonly blocked from accessing the social media site.  It’s a growing practice as last year Netflix blocked all access from commercial IP address ranges which instantly stopped people using commercial VPNs to access the site.  So if you want to buy proxies for Instagram you should ensure that they have residential IP addresses and definitely are’t already blocked by the site.   Sure these Instagram proxies are  likely to cost a bit more but they will ensure that your Instagram accounts are safe and will not be risked.  Obviously these are only needed if you’re trying to run multiple accounts or some Instagram promotion software.  Otherwise just continue to use your own IP address to access the site.

 

How to Network your Home Using HPNA

Using Home Phone Line Connections ( HPNA ) to Connect Your Computers – commonly referred to as HPNA in the networking world-

This is a guide to setting up a computer network using the existing telephone wiring that is running through your home’s walls.
You can connect your computers to a network using your phone jacks and existing wiring –
Basically saying that instead of running CAT-5 cable to Ethernet cards on your computers you can use a special HPNA network card and regular telephone cabling into the phone jack.

Not all your pc’s need to be connected using this technology,in fact this is usually reserved for “remote” computers that are in a room that is too far or too inconvenient to run an Ethernet cable or reach with a Wireless signal.
Similar to using an Ethernet network each computer that connects to the network using a telephone cable and phone jack and will need it’s own Network card installed – this will be a most likely be a PCI card and must be HPNA capable.

If you have purchased a HPNA network card (can also be a USB device) and need help with how to install it you can use the instructions for installing an Ethernet Network Card (it’s basically the same technique)
Click here for instructions

It’s very rare for a computer to already have a HPNA network card in it, so if you see a place where you can plug in a telephone size cable it is most likely a dial-up modem and will not be capable of connecting your computer to the network.    Also keep in mind that simply installing a HPNA card and plugging a telephone cable into the phone jack and possible doing the same with another computer in another room is not necessarily going to create a computer network.

You are still going to need some kind of “central” device like a Router that “talks” to each computer and decides which traffic goes to which pc.  You’ll need one of these devices too if you want to route or prioritize traffic from your network onto the internet.  You can also use it to set up VPNs or even connect to residential proxies for hiding your IP address when you’re online.

The benefits to doing a network using HPNA are going to be the convenience of being able to plug your computer into the telephone jack in the wall and having it connect to your network and to able to SHARE THE SAME INTERNET CONNECTION as your other pc’s and SHARE FILES between the computers.
All this without running your own CAT-5 cabling or purchasing wireless equipment.

DO keep in mind though there are some draw backs to using this type of networking technology.

First off you must understand that the quality of the communication between your computers using HPNA will be entirely dependant on the quality of the phone wiring of your home.
Also remember telephone wiring was not originally intended for this type of data transfer. So if your house is old or you have doubts about the quality of either the wiring or the phone jacks themselves, then you must keep that in mind if and when you are troubleshooting any issues that may arise during and after the install.
And as a side note
* Sometimes the phone company doesn’t have your house wired correctly in order to allow this type of communication* – you may want to contact them or your ISP for more information.

What You’ll need –

  • Telephone cabling- the minimal amount necessary to reach from your computer to the phone jack- you want this cable as short as possible
  • HPNA enabled Network Interface Card/Adapter- One for each computer that connects through the phone wiring
  • Router/Switch- one to be the central connector of all the computers and must be HPNA capable

* It’s best to have atleast Windows Vista or newer version of windows on your computer * No need to worry about requirements for CPU speed or RAM or Harddrive space

The easiest way to create a computer network is to connect all your pc’s to a central switch or router, which they will all use to communicate to one another. Look at the diagram below to see an example of what the finished network will look like.
So lets get started-
First thing is to decide if your are going to use a Router or a Switch You could use a Hub in this same type of set up, but with today’s prices you’re much better sticking with either a Switch or a Router. But which one, both a switch and router are going to be the “decision maker” on the network, which means it will decide what data goes to what pc. Having said that a Router is much smarter and does a much better job of this and make the number of decisions you have to make much simpler. And a switch will not be able to send out a HPNA signal for the pc’s to detect. If you use a Switch there will be some addition settings you will have to configure on your computers so they all have addresses on the network.

Also if you are planning on sharing one internet connection then you are going to need to use a Router so that it can dish out IP Addresses to each of the computers.  SO it’s probably best to just go with the Router right off the bat, because it will be more useful down the road as your network expands and becomes more complex.  For example if  you need some online privacy and want to try out a rotating proxies trial then it’s much, much easier if you have a decent router to route your traffic through.

Not all routers do Home Phoneline Networking: FOR HPNA YOUR ROUTER MUST BE CAPABLE OF TRANSMITTING A HPNA signal down your telephone wiring

USE A ROUTER – YOU’LL BE HAPPIER in the end.

Now lets take a look at your Computers-
Each computer on the network needs to have some type of network card installed, and if your computer is fairly new theres a good chance it already has a ethernet card or a dial-up modem installed.
You can be sure by either simply looking at the back of your pc for a port that looks like a phone jack- if it is the same size as a telephone cable ending then it is either a dial-up modem or a HPNA card.
Test this by trying to insert your telephone cable into it. – if it’s too small for the port then it is a ethernet card that is installed.
The other way to tell what type of hardware is installed on your pc is to check in your Device Manager
Click here for instructions

Alright so now we’re ready to plug some things in-
If you have a DSL internet connection then it may be nessary for you to also use a Filter or Splitter to seperate the different signals traveling through the phone wiring.
If this is true and your ISP has provided your hardware, I would strongly recommend contacting them for more specific directions on how to correctly use the filter Basically, it is the filters job to keep the two signal ( telephone and internet ) from interfering with one one another.

Connect one end of your telephone cable to the HPNA adapter you’ve purchased and the other end to the filter or directly into the phone jack.

Now assuming you have the HPNA adapter installed correctly and the computer has gotten the drivers installed properly then now the pc should be able to detect the HPNA signal being transmitted out by the router.

And then verify that each of your computers is able to ” Pull an IP Address” from the router and that they all start with the same numbers. The router should give each pc it’s own unique address and they will all start with the same numbers.
All IP addresses will be in the form of 4 octets – format – xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx Some examples of an IP address are: 192.168.x.x or 172.16.x.x or 10.x.x.x
The X’s are numbers that can change from one network to another so not to worry as long as the beginings are the same.
Think of the IP address as a street address – All your pc’s need to live on the same street in the same town.
There will also be a Subnet Mask- don’t worry about this number to much either your router will do this stuff for you.

To be sure all your computers are set-up to automatically get an IP address from your Router.  You should be then in a position to look further afield if your router is linked up to the internet. Remember you need a default gateway set to the router and you’ll need some form of name resolution.  You can point your clients at the router for name resolution or specify them on the client.  For example I use a BBC DNS server which is specially designed to allow me to watch the BBC from outside the UK. I specify this individually as I don;t want all my other devices configured like this.

Causes of Network Latency – TCP Proxies

On any sort of internet connection, speed is of course important.  The fastest response will be direct connections when the two computers are physically connected.  Of course the internet enables connections over thousands of miles but obviously this involves many more hops in the route.   If you start to use proxy servers or VPNs then you add an additional hop in the route which will almost always slow down your connection even more.

Overall speed is obviously one issue, but depending on what you’re doing online then there’s another that may be even more important.  Latency can actually cause a real problem with all sorts of online applications and especially for people playing games online.  If there is a long delay on the connection playing any sort of online action game can be virtually impossible online. If  you don’t believe me try playing Call of Duty using a satellite internet connection!   If you combine these with a slow VPN or even rotating residential proxies then you can seriously impact performance of your link.

TCP Hybla is an experimental TCP enhancement developed with the principal objective of combating the performance decline triggered by the prolonged RTTs typical of satellite links. It consists of a set of procedures that includes, among others:

  • an enhancement of the standard congestion control algorithm (to grant long RTT connections the exact same instantaneous segment transmission rate of a comparatively fast reference connection).
  • the compulsory adoption of the SACK policy.
  • the use of timestamps.
  • the adoption of Hoe’s channel bandwidth estimate.
  • the application and compulsory use of packet spacing methods (also known as “pacing”).
  • TCP Hybla includes only sender-side modification of TCP. As that, it is totally compatible with standard receivers.

For a full description of goals and characteristics of TCP Hybla refer to the publications section.

Performance.
TCP Hybla offers a pretty impressive efficiency improvement to long RTT satellite hookups with respect to TCP NewReno. It may be adopted either as an end-to-end protocol, or as satellite segment transport protocol in PEP (Performance Enhancing Proxy) designs based upon the TCP splitting principle. It can be also used as transport protocol in DTN architectures. See the performance section for further information.

Linux implementation.
Starting from kernel 2.6.13 Hybla has been included in the official Linux kernel. This implementation, based on the “module” Linux technology, does not include the last two Hybla components: Hoe’s channel bandwidth estimate and packet spacing. Their enhancement is mandatory to totally benefit from Hybla performance improvement. To this end, it is enough to patch the official kernel with the MultiTCP package, downloadable from the downloads section.

NS-2 implementation.
A TCP Hybla module has been developed for the widely adopted NS-2 simulation platform. This element can be downloaded from the downloads section.  At the time of writing this has yet to be tested extensively, it should work with all platforms and even with proxies designed for Instagram for instance.

TATPA testbed.
TATPA stands for Testbed for Advanced Transport Protocols and Architecture. It is a testbed developed by Hybla’s publishers to carry out comparative efficiency assessment of new TCP variants (included Hybla) and alternative architectures, such as PEPs (Performance Enhanced Proxy) and also DTN (Delay Tolerant Networks). It could be fully managed by remote through a powerful web interface. For further information see the TATPA testbed and the publications sections.

Projects.
TCP Hybla development is supported by the European Satellite Network of Excellence (SatNEx) project.

Using Proxy Servers for Privacy and Profit

Everyone online has a digital address.  It’s nothing complicated but it’s usually directly linked to your internet protocol address or IP address for short.  Although this number does vary throughout time, at the moment you connect to the internet it’s completely unique to you and you alone.  This number can be used to track your online activity to a surprising degree, it is the primary way that careless online criminals are tracked down.  There are of course huge privacy issues to having this address recorded and  technology exists to hide your location from websites you visit and your ISP.  At the heart of these are tools like VPN and proxy servers which we’ll cover briefly in this article.

Lots of us most probably have made use of a proxy server in all sorts of environments. In the case that you use the internet at the workplace or college and university, there’s a strong probability that you connect to it through a proxy server. They are actually frequently deployed to regulate access inwards and outwards to a company network from the world wide web. The idea is that as opposed to examining a wide variety of individual connections, the proxy can channel web traffic through a solitary point that makes it less complicated to monitor and check for things like viruses.

To impose making use of the proxy server, a large number of network administrators will definitely enforce their usage by a range of techniques. From the client computer the use of the proxy will be made mandatory by hard coding the settings into the browser. So for instance, Internet Explorer would certainly be set up and the settings pre-configured by using something like the Internet Explorer Application kit. The settings can also be installed by utilizing group policy settings released to the client from the Active directory.

In addition, the system administrator may even release configurations on the exterior firewall to control access throughout the network perimeter. This would be achieved by defining the IP address of the proxy and ensuring all other addresses are blocked out from leaving the network. If there are numerous proxies or they are set up in an array then multiple addresses would be configured. This would stop any individual from bypassing client side settings or setting up an additional browser and trying to gain access to the internet directly. If the address isn’t specified then the access would be blocked.

Proxies on the internet are normally used in a marginally different context although the functionality is relatively the same. They are mostly used to provide a level of privacy and hide your internet address from web servers. The idea is that rather than seeing the IP address of your client, then the web server (and your ISP) will only observe the IP address of the proxy. This would also allow you to circumvent some of the many geo-blocks which exist on the web. Essentially if you route your connection through a proxy located in the right nation then you can bypass the block. Countless people use these to view things like the BBC from Spain or anywhere outside the UK, though it can be challenging to find a UK proxy fast enough to stream video at least without paying for one. This has become a bit more complicated over the last handful of years though, as the websites have begun to detect the use of proxies and are blocking them automatically. Nowadays you normally need a VPN so as to watch video from one of the primary media sites, due to the fact that proxies won’t function any longer.

Presently there are other common uses of proxies online and that’s usually to make money. Countless individuals and companies, use proxies so as to create more electronic identities. Doing this means instead of being restricted to one connection, then you can efficiently make use of hundreds at the same time. This is most especially useful for performing online research, posting adverts, internet marketing and even utilizing e-commerce sites to buy stock to resale. A common use is to use automated software to buy things like sneakers or tickets to popular concerts, normally you’ll only be allowed to try and buy once but using proxies you can purchase many. This is why people employ computer software to speed up these methods and purchase the best rotating proxies so as to facilitate these purchases. There are many individuals making thousands from simple software programs, a few of the best rotating proxy networks and an ordinary home computer acquiring and selling limited availability items such as these.

Don’t Expect Internet Privacy by Default

When the internet was first conceived back in the 1980s, well the date varies depending on your definition – there was little thought about security. The date of course is disputed but I prefer 1983 when TCP/IP was adopted by ARPANET, however the lack of security is a matter of fact. It was a form on communication allowing disparate devices and people to talk to each other and no-one expected it to end up where it is. Unfortunately to allow cross compatibility then compromises need to be made, the security of your data is one of them.

However there are methods to add some security, web sites try with SSL implementation but the end user can assist to. Most users who have security concerns or have experienced cyber crime, will have come across VPN software. This is a virtual private network which can be created to encrypt your data as it travels across the internet. These come in all shapes and sizes from basic personal security ones, to advances residential IP rotating proxies like these ones.

With regards to lots of people there is a pervasive picture of a VPN user, it’s something similar to a young person sporting a hoodie, hunched up in a coffee shop with their laptop. They’re possibly attempting to hack into some federal government computers and are actually on the run from the authorities. As a VPN conceals your geographic location and your web traffic there’s a common idea that the individual is up to no good and certainly has something to hide.

The reality is literally a very long way from this viewpoint and even though numerous hackers do indeed use VPNs consistently so do an awful number of ordinary individuals. Most large corporations have been using VPNs for decades to support inbound connections from remote users. If a salesman needs access to the product database on the company’s network it’s much simpler to allow them to connect through the internet and view the latest version. This is much more secure than travelling around with DVDs and obviously assures that he or she has the most recent versions.

If you make any type of normal connection over the internet, all your web traffic is pretty much viewable, i.e anyone with a mind can intercept and see it. In the event that you’re logging and connecting to a secured share then this would certainly consist of usernames and security passwords. So in order to protect these connections, you might commonly install a VPN client on the laptop computer and make certain it’s used to encrypt the connection back to the company network. It is actually completely legitimate and indeed intelligent business practice.

Regular home users will make use of VPNs for very similar reasons. Essentially the internet is insecure and there is minimal provision for security integrated in automatically. Sure you can access secure sites through things like SSL when you have to enter a credit card or payment information. However this is the exception not the rule and most websites are actually not secure and the vast majority of information flies across the wires in clear text.

In addition to the general insecurity of the web, there’s the additional issue of privacy. Your surfing data is easily available via a variety of sources. For a start, there’s a complete list in your ISP of every little thing you do on the internet and depending on where you reside this can be routinely and easily accessed. Using a VPN stops this, transforming your internet activity into an encrypted list which is unreadable without your permission. Are they used by cyber criminals and terrorists? Sure but also by millions of people who think that what they do online shouldn’t be part of public records.

The VPN systems are becoming more and more sophisticated simply driven by demand and the risks of recognition. There are all sorts of variations including enabling different setups and ports to dodge detection. You can also get them to use home based IP addresses through specific residential IP providers –

In a large number of countries VPNs are definitely not illegal but simply a simple business and personal security tool. However in some countries this is not the case and you can get into trouble if caught using them. Countries that actually ban the use of VPN include places like China, Iraq, Belarus and Turkey. Various other countries merely allow authorized services which usually indicate those which can be jeopardized if required. Individuals still use VPNs in the majority of these nations indeed in Turkey almost all expats use one to view things like British and American TV on-line. It’s actually quite difficult to detect a VPN in use however that doesn’t stop it technically being illegal in those locations.

Source: http://www.onlineanonymity.org/proxies/residential-vpn-ip-address/

Network Attacks : Denial of Service

A few years ago being a network administrator was a much easier job. Sure you probably had fewer resources and technology choices for running applications were limited, but there was one crucial difference – the internet. As soon as even one computer on your network was connected to the internet the game changes completely, you have internet access from the network but it works the other way around too. Any server or PC in your network is potentially accessible from the internet too.

A Denial of Service (DOS) attack is any kind of attack that interferes with the function of a computer so that genuine individuals can no longer get access to it. DoS attacks are actually possible on the majority of network equipment, including switches, hosting servers, firewalls, remote access computers, as well as just about every other network resource.  A DoS attack may be specific to a service, such as in an FTP attack, or perhaps an entire machine. The different kinds of DoS are diverse and wide ranging, however, they can be split into 2 distinctive categories that connect to intrusion detection: resource depletion and malicious packet attacks.

Malicious packet DoS attacks work by transmitting abnormal traffic to a host in order to cause the service or the host in itself to crash. Crafted packet DoS attacks occur whenever software is not properly coded to deal with abnormal or unusual traffic. Commonly out-of– spec traffic can easily cause computer software to react unexpectedly and crash. Attackers can utilize crafted packet DoS attacks in order to bring down IDSs, even Snort.A specifically crafted tiny ICMP packet with a size of 1 was discovered to cause Snort v. 1.8.3 to core dump. This particular version of Snort did not actually correctly define the minimum ICMP header dimensions, which in turn made it possible for the DoS to happen.

One of the reasons that the denial of service attacks are so common is that the attacker is extremely difficult to trace.   The most obvious factor behind this is that most of the attacks don’t require valid responses to complete, therefore it’s very hard to identity the source.  In addition to that are the huge number of anonymous  resources available online including VPNs, anonymous proxies and providers of residential IP address networks like these.

Along with out of spec traffic, malicious packets can certainly consist of payloads which cause a system to crash. A packet’s payload is actually taken as input right into a service. If the input is not properly checked, the program can be DoSed. The Microsoft FTP DoS attack demonstrates the comprehensive assortment of DoS attacks readily available to black hats in the wild.The very first step in the attack is actually to start a legitimate FTP connection.The attacker would most likely then issue a command with a wildcard pattern (such as * or?). Within the FTP Web server, a function which processes wildcard sequences in FTP commands does not allocate adequate memory when executing pattern matching. It is actually feasible for the attackers command incorporating a wildcard pattern to cause the FTP service to crash.This DoS, as well as the Snort ICMP DoS, are 2 instances of the many thousands of potential DoS attacks out there.

The additional method to deny service is via resource depletion. A resource depletion DOS attack functions simply by flooding a service with a great deal normal traffic that legitimate users can not gain access to the service. An attacker overrunning a service with typical traffic can certainly exhaust finite resources such as bandwidth, memory, and processor chip cycles.

A classic memory resource exhaustion DoS is a SYN flood. A SYN flood makes use of the TCP three-way handshake. The handshake starts with the client sending a TCP SYN packet. The host then sends out a SYN ACK in response. The handshake is concluded when the client responds with an ACK. If the host does not obtain the returned ACK, the host sits unoccupied and waits with the session open. Each and every open session consumes a certain amount of memory. If sufficient three– way handshakes are launched, the host consumes all of the readily available memory waiting for ACKs.The traffic generated from a SYN flood is normal in appearance. The majority servers are configured these days to leave just a specific number of TCP connections open. One other classic resource depletion attack is the Smurf attack.

A Smurf attack works by capitalizing on open network broadcast addresses.A broadcast address forwards all packets on to just about every host on the destination subnet. Every host on the destination subnet answers to the source address listed in the traffic to the broadcast address. An attacker sends a stream of ICMP echo requests or pings to a broadcast address.This has the effect of magnifying a single ICMP echo request up to 250 times.

Furthermore. the attacker spoofs the origin address in order that the target receives all the ICMP echo reply traffic. An attacker with a 128 Kb/s DSL Net connection can certainly create a 32 Mb/s Smurf flood. DoS attacks commonly utilize spoofed IP addresses due to the fact that the attack succeeds even if the response is misdirected.The attacker requires no response, and in cases like the Smurf attack, wants at all costs to avoid a response.This can make DoS attacks difficult to defend from, and even harder to trace.

Further Reading: http://www.changeipaddress.net/us-ip-address-for-netflix/